Contraception News

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Wild horses, urban deer, roaming bison and dead ideas December 28, 2014 Montana, Billings Gazette
... Wildlife fertility control works:  - Thirty wild horse populations in the U.S., Canada and Europe, wild horse sanctuaries throughout the U.S. and five different Native American reservations are using fertility control to manage their horse populations... Urban deer populations in four different states have been managed with fertility control...The managers of an entire bison herd in California achieved zero population growth in one year using fertility control [video below] ...

... As many as 375 deer a year would be killed by sharpshooters over four years... After four years of thinning the herd, the plan calls for a contraceptive program involving as many as 400 does to keep the deer numbers from growing. This is contingent on meeting federal guidelines... 

Deer herd way down, but Valley Forge continues culling December 4, 2014 Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Daily News
... Allen Rutberg, director for the Center for Animals and Public Policy at Tufts University ... said that deer can be captured or darted with the vaccine, and that he is currently working on new darting technology that will allow users to dart deer at further distances. He said contraception might not cost that much more than culling, and the public likely would find contraception preferable to killing... for 20 years, the Park Service has used contraception to control horse populations, as it has done at Assateague National Seashore in Maryland...

Southampton Officials Develop New Plan For Addressing Deer Problem. First, federal sharpshooters took aim at Long Island's ever-growing deer population. But that failed amid protests and lawsuits. Now there's a new "game" plan. Southampton officials, looking for common ground between hunters and animal lovers, have created a new proposal to thin the herd using contraception - November 11, 2014



Bald Head Island, Population-control effort on hold after one tagged deer found off island October 29, 2014 North Carolina, State Port Pilot
... Bald Head Island’s groundbreaking effort to manage the deer herd with a contraceptive drug is on hold after a tagged deer was spotted on Carolina Beach recently... the birth control vaccine, does not affect humans that consume deer, the anesthetizing agent potentially could ...

Effects of GonaCon immunocontraceptive vaccine in free‐ranging female Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) JG Powers, RJ Monello, MA Wild, TR Spraker… - Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2014
... In January 2008, we captured 120 mature female elk in Rocky Mountain National Park (CO, USA), determined pregnancy status, and randomly assigned them to treated (n = 60; 1.5 mL of GonaCon) or control (n = 60; 1.5 mL of saline) groups... We conclude that GonaCon is effective at reducing pregnancy for 1–2 years post-vaccination and is strongly associated with sterile inflammation at the site of injection. Similar to other species, the vaccine is less effective in elk under free-ranging conditions than those in a captive environment.

Cleveland, East-side deer coalition a good idea to manage growing deer herd July 31, 2014 Ohio, Cleveland.com,
...  Most people would not support killing of animals other than for food... As a scientist involved in this work, I strongly recommend the Eastside Wildlife Management Partnership include consideration of deer fertility control in its management deliberations. As an introduction to this subject, I recommend the materials at Animal Fertility Control  ...

Fertility control' can help manage wildlife June 19, 2014 Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Daily News
... Fertility vaccine also works in deer. Research by Tufts University scientists and others performed in three locations - Fire Island National Seashore in New York, the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Maryland, and Fripp Island in North Carolina - led to reductions in urban deer populations by 30 to 60 percent. The findings were published in Wildlife Research and the Journal of Zoo Wildlife Medicine by Allen Rutberg and colleagues...

... Under the protocols approved by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, in 2014 and 2015, highly trained staff from The HSUS will capture, ear-tag and administer a long-acting form of the PZP vaccine to approximately 60 female deer living in the Village. Treated deer will be monitored for fawns to determine vaccine effectiveness and longevity for two to three years after initial treatment...

Controlling deer populationsOctober 1, 2014 Washington Post
Contrary to what the Sept. 30 Health & Science article “Cornell thought sterilizing deer would work. . .” indicated, Tufts University’s studies of the porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive vaccine showed that the treatments have stabilized or reduced three deer populations in the field... although testing on truly “open” populations of deer has been limited, nearly every study of movements of female deer in suburbs has found that adult females rarely stray far from home.



Round two for deer birth control plan on Bald Head February 27, 2014 North Carolina, Port City Daily
... The N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission ... permitted the operation, which allows the use of a drug called GonaCon to vaccinate the animals against reproductive abilities...  the cold, rainy weather was just one challenge that resulted in the mission–said to be the first of its kind in North Carolina, after several years of talk and study–only reaching eight females, not enough for the “immunocontraception” program to be truly successful...
     Now funded, Bald Head’s deer birth control program scheduled October 21, 2013 North Carolina, portcitydaily.com 
... The program is meant to reduce the need for lethal sharpshooting ... Friends of BHI Deer, a group of residents who’ve for years pushed the “immunocontraception” approach–involving an anti-reproductive drug injected into a number of female deer–has announced meeting its $50,000 private fundraising goal for the program’s first year...  a nonprofit wildlife management company calledWhite Buffalo Inc. would handle the first-year work, immobilizing about 30 does by dart, directly injecting their hindquarters with the agent and fitting their ears with livestock tags for identification...
   
Hastings Mayor Swiderski: What to Expect During Deer Immunocontraception February 24, 2014 New York, news.hamlethub.com 
... This weekend, we begin the deer immunocontraception study ... The darting professionals will wait until they have a clean shot at a still deer when the dart will hit the flank of the deer.... the professionals will tag both ears with very large and visible tags, carry out some measurements, and then inject the deer with the immunocontraceptive ... The deer will amble off with its new ear-tags and hopefully not calve new fawns in the subsequent two years...
     Hastings Mayor Says Deer Birth Control Project To Begin In Late February February 21, 2014 New York, The Daily Voice
... the Humane Society professionals will find them, take some measurements, and inject them with PZP ... The Humane Society team has darted over 3,000 animals between the two of them over the last 30 years without incident ...

Salida, Intern offers deer task force update January 10, 2014 Colorado,  Mountain Mail Newspaper
...   recommendations the task force provided ...  Recommendation 4: Birth control for urban does ...

SPCA wants deer cull off the table November 27, 2013 British Columbia, Victoria News
... SpayVac ... “(In Maple Ridge) there were 10 females and they had 12 (fawns). Five years down the road after they were treated, there was only one born instead of 60,” Fraker said. “These are typical results. That was a 50-times reduction in fawns being born.” ... Mark Fraker is a biologist and president of SpayVac for Wildlife Inc. and TerraMar Environmental Research

Round two for deer birth control plan on Bald Head February 27, 2014 North Carolina, Port City Daily
... The N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission ... permitted the operation, which allows the use of a drug called GonaCon to vaccinate the animals against reproductive abilities...  the cold, rainy weather was just one challenge that resulted in the mission–said to be the first of its kind in North Carolina, after several years of talk and study–only reaching eight females, not enough for the “immunocontraception” program to be truly successful...
     Now funded, Bald Head’s deer birth control program scheduled October 21, 2013 North Carolina, portcitydaily.com 
... The program is meant to reduce the need for lethal sharpshooting ... Friends of BHI Deer, a group of residents who’ve for years pushed the “immunocontraception” approach–involving an anti-reproductive drug injected into a number of female deer–has announced meeting its $50,000 private fundraising goal for the program’s first year...  a nonprofit wildlife management company calledWhite Buffalo Inc. would handle the first-year work, immobilizing about 30 does by dart, directly injecting their hindquarters with the agent and fitting their ears with livestock tags for identification...

Contraception Project at Bald Head Island


Study: Bison birth control working on Catalina Island December 18, 2013 California, KCET-TV 
... a study just published in the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine reveals that artificial contraception can work to keep American bison from reproducing, apparently with no ill effects on the bison.... Before PZP, about two in three female bison would bear young each year. That dropped to one in ten the first year PZP was used, and around one in thirty the second year...

...  The Friends of the Bald Head Island Deer Program has raised $49,000 to fund the first year of a new program that injects the immuno-contraceptives drug GonaCon in certain female deer to manage the population on the island... Certain female deer will be given the drug in January of 2014.  Only a percentage of the female deer will be treated...

Harbor Springs begins using birth control to control deer park population September 18, 2013 Michigan, Petoskeynews.com 
... only the second in the country to implement a darted birth control to regulate the population of a enclosed public deer park.  Newton, Mass., started using a similar method in the late 1990s in an effort to phase out a public deer park, according to the Humane Society of the United States ... Adult does will be darted with a immunocontraception vaccine called porcine zona pellucida (commonly called PZP) that will cause pig protein to cover the egg during reproduction and repel sperm... 

Westport, Town Searches to Limit Deer Population  September 5, 2013 Connectictut, 
inklingsnews.com 
... The Deer Management Committee, made up of seven Westporters ... Their draft report suggests ... emphasizing deer awareness in Westport’s Driver Education, and promoting increased fencing to keep deer off property. The report also proposes using Porzine Zona Pellucida, or PZP, immunocontraceptives to sterilize deer. The contraceptive program, developed by Alan Rutberg, a research-assistant professor at the Tufts-Cummings School for Veterinary Medicine ...
     Weston, Meeting to Discuss Alternative Deer Management Plans May 5, 2013 Massachusetts, Boston.com
... Jay Kirkpatrick, inducted into the Wild Horse and Burro Exposition Hall of Fame for his success in controlling wild horse populations through birth-control drugs, told residents ...  the first deer were given the contraceptive, via dart gun, in 1995.  By 2005, the deer population on Fire Island had dropped by 70 percent, he said. “The deer haters love it, because there aren’t so many deer now, and the deer lovers love it because no deer were killed.” ...

Hastings, Volunteers ready to help Hastings deer birth-control project July 6, 2013 New York, The Journal News | LoHud.com
...The plan to use birth control on the deer has the approval of the state Department of Environmental Protection and the attention of several other New York and at least one New Jersey community watching to see if the plan works ... “Over 60 people have signed up and we’re beginning to organize into groups,” ...

Report: Birth control better for wild horses than BLM roundups June 5, 2013 Utah, The Salt Lake Tribune 
... A panel of independent experts is calling on the Bureau of Land Management to bring better science and more birth control to its beleaguered wild horse and burro program, which has removed thousands of animals from Utah and other Western states' rangelands in recent years. The National Academy of Science's National Research Council released a 451-page report that finds "business as usual" will be hard on both free-ranging equids and taxpayers, who foot the staggering bill of corralling and caring for 50,000 animals...

Bald Head Island, Plan solves deer issue through sterilization, GonaCon June 1, 2013 Nort Carolina, StarNewsOnline.com
... The conservancy received a permit from the state Wildlife Resources Commission and will be the first community in North Carolina to implement the non-lethal management program. ..."This drug requires two inoculations, and then they're sterile forever," said Suzanne Dorsey, executive director of the Bald Head Island Conservancy. "It's got over a 90 percent success rate in sterilizing the deer with two doses." ... GonaCon, a contraceptive developed by the federal Department of Agriculture... 

Bald Head permitted for deer birth control, GonaCon May 21, 2013 North Carolina, Port City Daily
... Officials with the Bald Head Island Conservancy (BHIC) and a group of property owners who’ve long fought for the “immunocontraception” method hope to begin darting deer with the control drug late this year or early next... The drug for the task is called GonaCon, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Wildlife Research Center and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

Hastings Trustees, Expert Meet To Discuss Deer Birth Control May 8, 2013 New York, The Daily Voice
... Deer birth control involves a vaccine called PZP, short for porcine zona pellucida, a pig protein that poses no risk to people, animals or the environment [Dr. Allen Rutberg] ... A deer is shot via dart gun to tranquilize it before the vaccine can be injected. The Environmental Protection Agency requires that the deer be tagged ...

... the problem with that is that game reserves have a finite amount of space... So many game reserves are opting for contraception. Some are vasectomizing elephant bulls. Others, like Makalali, are using birth control on the females. In many cases, they still let the elephants have some babies so as not to mess up herd dynamics, but birth rates are low, and there have been no behavioral changes...

... Right now, there are no contraception methods that meet all federal guidelines for park use so this part of the plan is uncertain, Petit said. If no means are developed, it may be necessary to shoot even more deer... The price tag over 15 years is $4.2 million....  It would reduce the density from 41 to 21 per square mile. ...

Effects of two porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive vaccines on ovarian activity in horses U Bechert, J Bartell, M Kutzler, A Menino, R Bildfell… Journal of Wildlife Management, 2013
... Three to 4 months after vaccination, 93% of SpayVac-injected mares ceased cycling; whereas all control mares continued to cycle throughout the study. Relatively constant antibody titers were reached by week 6 post-vaccination, although we found appreciable variation within treatment groups, especially 4–8 weeks post-vaccination. Based on our study, the SpayVac formulations impair ovarian function but do not affect other major organ systems, and could provide a safe and effective immunocontraceptive option for mares. 

... This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon™, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease ... Subcutaneous vaccination with GonaCon is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets.

Dog birth control shots could limit populations June 20, 2013 South Dakota, Ct Post
... Veterinarians plan to catch and inject 300 wild female dogs with a birth control vaccine that has worked on white-tailed deer, wild horses, wallabies and ferrets.  The two-year test using the government vaccine GonaCon is scheduled to begin in September on two isolated Indian reservations ...

Not tonight deer: A new birth control vaccine helps reduce urban deer damage August 31, 2011 PhysOrg.com
... GonaCon blocks a biological signal that triggers reproductive behavior in deer ... As day length decreases in autumn, the reproductive systems in these animals "turn on."..."Other birth-control vaccines using porcine zona pellucida (PZP) also can prevent deer from producing offspring, but PZP-vaccinated animals still exhibit mating behaviors," Goldade explained. He is with the U. S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service/Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) in Fort Collins, Colo., where GonaCon was developed. "That opens the door to dangerous situations in which males chase females across the highway. With GonaCon, however, vaccinated deer don't even try to mate," ....

Testimony from Allen Rutberg, a professor at Tufts University's Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine: The vaccine produced noticeable results in each trial, Gutberg said. On Fire Island, less than 20 percent of does that were treated produced fawns the following year. This trend was accompanied by a 50 to 60 percent decline in the local deer population during an approximately 10-year span. On Fripp Island, the one-shot vaccine had produced an 80 to 90 percent drop in fawning rates....Rutberg said the costs of deer birth control were not inconsiderable. While remote darting of the deer cost only about $80 in the Fire Island program, capturing each deer for vaccination and tagging on Fripp Island cost more than $500.

Oak Bay, Deer meeting yields more decisions to make June 24, 2013 British Columbia, Victoria News
... One speaker, Susan Vickery of EARS Sanctuary in Coombs, advocated for and shared her efforts in testing out an immuno-contraceptive on her own herd of 40 rescued deer. Vickery offered sanctuary for some of the University of Victoria rabbits during its campus-wide cull in 2011.  In three weeks, Vickery was able to raise $80,000 in support funds for the rabbits and offered her services to now help find sponsors for the non-lethal contraceptive shots...

Avon Lake looks into new deer management April 20, 2013 Ohio, The Morning Journal
...  Mayor Greg Zilka. “In my eyes, if residents are still complaining, it’s still a problem.”  Zilka has contacted Tufts University in Boston to draft a proposal for using contraception to reduce the deer population. But that plan would require approval of state Wildlife officials, and that hasn’t happened in more than 20 years, Zilka said.  The city also will look at encouraging residents to fence in their properties, and the placement of cautionary road signs where deer are prevalent...

Don't kill the deer in Rock Creek Park February 1, 2013 Washington Post, Jay Kirkpatrick and Allen Rutberg
     As two scientists with extensive experience using fertility treatments to control wildlife populations ... One fertility-control vaccine, porcine zona pellucida (PZP) — which can be administered by shooting the animal with a dart — is safe for deer and for predators, scavengers and any humans who happen to consume venison from a treated deer; it is a natural protein that degrades in the deer’s body after injection, and if eaten, it is destroyed in digestion... PZP has reduced urban white-tailed deer numbers at Fire Island National Seashore in New York; controlled wild horse populations at Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Cape Lookout National Seashore in North Carolina; and slowed growth of the Tule elk population at Point Reyes National Seashore in California. And it has been used since 1994 to limit white-tailed deer conflicts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg...

Jay Kirkpatrick, Director of the nonprofit Science and Conservation Center in Billings Montana, has used darts to control horse populations for 24 years, and says that darting urban deer is far more effective than hunting them... “Suppose by some magical way, you went in and you reduced the population by 80 percent. Remove them, shoot them. You haven’t solved a problem, because the ones that are remaining behind are still going to breed.” Guns cost between $900 and $3,000. The Science and Conservation Center offers training in Montana for $200 per person, he said – though they waive that fee in cases of hardship. But once employees are trained, the Center sells the vaccine for $24 per dose, and darts cost $2.15. 

A U.S.D.A. study concludes "We are confident that GonaCon vaccine will become a valuable addition to the tools used by wildlife professionals to manage populations of overabundant wild animals in settings where other methods such as regulated sport hunting cannot be applied." It has also been shown to reduce traffic collisions. Using a netting method requiring no tranquilizing drugs, wildlife managers in Colorado put radio collars on 20 deer and elk with no ill effect, a much more difficult process than injecting a contraceptive

Bald Head Island, BHI deer cull could wrap by week's end January 10, 2013 North Carolina, Port City Daily
...  the cull is targeting roughly 20 female deer to reduce the local herd’s population enough for a proposed birth-control program.... BHIC explained it is working in partnership with the village, and with residents opposed to the cull routine, to implement a non-lethal alternative. The proposal: “immunocontraception,” or the administration of birth control drugs to keep the population level... hope to administer by 2014 a drug called GonaCon ...

Hastings-on-Hudson, New York village looks to contraceptive to control deer population December 13, 2012 New York, FOX News
... volunteers will begin gathering preliminary research for the birth control project early next year... The project would be led by Tufts University veterinary expert Allen Rutberg...

Westport, Two towns take different paths in dealing with deer population December 2, 2012 Connecticut, Westport-News
As another deer hunt continues at Devil's Den in Weston, Westport's Deer Management Committee ... "It's a contraceptive program that's used by darting deer," said Susan Pike, the committee chairwoman. "We estimate (it) would cut our deer herd down by half within five years, where we wouldn't have to hunt, where we wouldn't have to overturn the ordinance."  Westport has long had a no-hunting ordinance in place... 
Westport May Test New Contraceptive:  Committee Seeks Accurate, Infrared Deer Count October 11, 2012 Connecticut, Westport Now
... A subcommittee report presented by Michele Lamothe, a veterinarian, described a PCP contraceptive vaccine expected to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency within three years.  Unlike other contraceptive methods, which are more expensive and require two applications, the vaccine, which causes does to create antibodies against sperm, only requires one application costing $80 each, Lamothe said.

State Port Pilot
After more than a decade of consideration, residents of Bald Head Island are seriously ready to administer birth control to the island’s deer herd, eliminating the need for periodic hunts.  ... Oakley said his problem with the lethal cull has nothing to do with hunting, as he grew up hunting deer in his native Georgia. The issue, he said, is that Bald Head Island is not a suitable place for gunfire, and bow hunting is messy ... “The change is that the state Wildlife Resources Commission is willing to consider this management option,” Dorsey said. “It would be the first in the state.” 

Harbor Springs deer to get contraceptives December 4, 2012 Michigan, Petoskey News-Review 
City manager Tom Richards has found a way to help manage the deer population at the Harbor Springs Deer Park: to treat the deer with contraceptives — administered by dart.   ... In talking with a local veterinarian and experts from the humane society, Richards arranged to have the does in the herd given long-lasting contraceptives. The contraceptives will be administered by a dart gun, and will last 2-3 years.  "This way, we can manage the population instead of having to deal with overpopulation," ...

Avon Lake to Test Contraception, Full text of proposed amendment to Avon Lake's hunting ordinance November 14, 2012 Ohio, Patch
...  a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach to managing the deer population is the most effective strategy ... a deer culling program has been in effect in the City of Avon Lake since 2004 ... Develop, in coordination with a university or research institute, a proposal which outlines a scientific research project and seek permission from the state to use contraceptives for scientific research on white-tailed deer within the municipality, and implement such contraceptive research project upon receipt of permission by the state...

... Avon Lake Councilwoman Jennifer Fenderbosch ...  first introduced the idea of birth control for deer in early spring of this year... with Tufts University and the Medical College of Ohio, who are studying the effects of PZP, a non-hormonal birth control dart for wild animals.  “The universities are interested in investigating the possibility of a long term birth control study of the white tailed deer in Avon Lake..." ... Fenderbosch said the Humane Society of the United States is paying for air fare, hotel and expenses for the Tufts group.

Essex County, Nearby deer needn't fear next year December 6, 2012 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
 ...New Jersey, along with Maryland, are the states that allow immuno-contraceptives to be given to deer. Our county and virtually every other government in New Jersey and elsewhere that have sought to control the overpopulation of deer have rejected deer contraceptives. The procedure of locating the deer, tranquilizing them, capturing them and immunizing them with contraceptives is arduous to achieve — and costly... Here’s an alternative. Essex County officials should give pro-deer advocates a chance to determine the effectiveness of a citizen-driven vaccination effort...

Hastings Board to Submit Permit Application for Deer Immuno-Contraception June 7, 2012 New York, Patch.com 
..."There isn't enough space in the village without residences to have a traditional bow-and-arrow cull," [Mayor Peter] Swiderski said....Two years ago ...(DEC) granted Swiderski a permit to do a net-and-bolt cull of deer ... When animal rights activist spoke out vehemently against the cull ... the board started over.... Hastings would work with Tufts professor Dr. Allen Rutberg, who is currently conducting studies on immuno-contraception to control suburban deer populations... 


Fair Oaks Ranch studies deer contraception November 21, 2011 Texas, San Antonio Express
... [from survey] “Birth control is the most accepted method of controlling the herd,” said Alderman Mark Anderson, chairman of the city's ad hoc deer committee. “And our residents are about to find out if it will work.” ... Mayor Cheryl Landman is now authorized to sign a two-and-a-half-year contract for not more than $90,000 with Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute for a study on whitetail dear migration, a scientific census count and the potential of contraceptive use in order to reduce or stabilize the deer population. 

Not tonight deer: A new birth control vaccine helps reduce urban deer damage August 31, 2011 PhysOrg.com
... GonaCon blocks a biological signal that triggersreproductive behavior in deer ... As day length decreases in autumn, the reproductive systems in these animals "turn on."..."Other birth-control vaccines using porcine zona pellucida (PZP) also can prevent deer from producing offspring, but PZP-vaccinated animals still exhibit mating behaviors," Goldade explained. He is with the U. S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service/Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) in Fort Collins, Colo., where GonaCon was developed. "That opens the door to dangerous situations in which males chase females across the highway. With GonaCon, however, vaccinated deer don't even try to mate," ....

Loantaka reservation closed Wednesday for deer hunt October 1, 2014 New Jersey, New Jersey Online 
... The commission first allowed controlled hunts at its facilities in the early 1990s. The commission also experimented with a three-year contraceptive program beginning in 1997 that was deemed ineffective because it was too difficult to annually locate tagged deer and administer contraceptive shots... [time between shots is increasing, as is tagging technology]

Ruminant Rumblings May 19, 2011 New York Urban East Hampton StarBy Joanne Pilgrim | The East Hampton Group for Wildlife is advocating a pilot deer-contraception program. Durell Godfrey At a town board session on Tuesday, the East Hampton Group for Wildlife offered to raise money and help the ...Bill Crain of Montauk, the president of the group, and his wife, Ellen Crain, outlined a proposal for a pilot study through which 30 does would be vaccinated with a contraceptive made with a protein from purified pig ovaries, effective for three to four years, and 10 given a placebo. The does would be tagged so they could be monitored for four years to see if they give birth to fawns. Ms. Crain, a professor of pediatric and emergency medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, said research shows that hunting does not adequately control deer populations, and nationwide studies show that most Americans oppose hunting. The contraceptive vaccine that could be used on the deer has proved to be safe and “not harmful to humans or to animals that eat deer,” Ms. Crain said, and it is used by the United States government to control herds of wild horses in the West. It would be provided for free by its developer, a veterinarian who would also offer his services to oversee an East Hampton pilot study. Dr. Jonathan Turetsky, an East Hampton vet, has offered to oversee care of the deer, Ms. Crain said. The program would have no cost to the town.

ROMANCE WITHOUT RESPONSIBILITIES: THE USE OF FERTILITY CONTROL TO MANAGE BISON ON CATALINA ISLAND CALIFORNIA. Western Wildlife Society Meetings, 2012, Calvin Duncan; Catalina Island Conservancy; PO Box 2739, Avalon, CA, 90704; 310-510-1299 x232; cduncan@catalinaconservancy.org; Julie, L,king 
We evaluated the cost, administration efforts, and efficacy of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for the contraceptive management of an introduced herd of American bison (Bison bison) on Santa Catalina Island, California. A roundup was completed in 2009 whereby 35 of the estimated 47 breeding age bison cows were temporarily restrained, ear tagged, and given an intramuscular inoculation of 100µg PZP mixed with 0.5ml of Freund’s Modified adjuvant (FMA) as a primer. The remaining 12 unmarked cows received the same PZP and FMA emulsion via field darting efforts completed in February and March 2010. As per PZP administration protocol, a pre-rut dose of 100µg PZP mixed with 0.5 ml of Freund’s Incomplete adjuvant (FIA) was administered intramuscularly to all 47 breeding age bison cows via field darting efforts conducted mid April through July 2010. The pre-rut darting efforts were completed during 12 daily attempts and required approximately 45 hours of field time. Through our monitoring efforts in 2011 we demonstrated that the contraception effort had successfully held the calving rate below the estimated annual mortality rate of 4%, and therefore proved to be an effective means of maintaining a stable bison population. 

TESTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ONE-SHOTIMMUNOCONTRACEPTIVES ON WHITE-TAILED DEER AT FRIPP ISLAND, SOUTH CAROLINA
Both distance-sampling and mark-resight methods indicated a decline in deer densities and fawn-doe ratios on Fripp Island in 2008. Between 2006 and 2008, deer numbers appear to have declined between 21-35% on Fripp and fawn:doe ratios have declined by 38-56%. Both measures remained roughly stable on the Hunting Island control site during that period. There is also a trend for increased male:female ratios over the course of the study on both sites, for reasons that are not well understood. - Allen T. Rutberg, Ph.D., Research Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental and Population Health, Tufts-Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine

Horse overpopulation addressed by locally produced wildlife contraceptive vaccine February 16, 2012 Montana, KTVQ Billings News
The vaccine has been used on wild horses and other species including urban deer for more than 20 years under FDA experimental use. "We didn't solve the cat and dog problem by creating more kill shelters. We did it with spay and neuter programs...A recent United States Geological Survey economics study indicates the vaccine could save almost $8-million dollars annually in the management of western wild horses.

Avon Lake, Ohio, Will Test Contraception
Avon Lake, Full text of proposed amendment to Avon Lake's hunting ordinance November 14, 2012 Ohio, Patch
...  a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach to managing the deer population is the most effective strategy ... a deer culling program has been in effect in the City of Avon Lake since 2004 ... Develop, in coordination with a university or research institute, a proposal which outlines a scientific research project and seek permission from the state to use contraceptives for scientific research on white-tailed deer within the municipality, and implement such contraceptive research project upon receipt of permission by the state...

How Immunocontraception Can Contribute to Elephant Management in Small, Enclosed Reserves: Munyawana Population as a Case Study 2011, PLOS ONE, Heleen C. Druce,  Robin L. Mackey,  Rob Slotow 
...  A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown...

... Analysis of these models offers several predictions, amenable to testing in field studies. (1) More than 50% of fertile females will need to be maintained infertile to achieve meaningful reductions in ungulate numbers even when fertility rates are low. (2) The relationship between the proportion of females maintained infertile and the steady state density is highly nonlinear. This means that small errors in estimating levels of infertility can lead to large errors in achieved density. It also means that managers should expect to see little change in steady-state density across a broad range of delivery rates. (3) The efficacy of fertility control as a management technique depends strongly on the persistence of the effect of the fertility control agent and the ability of managers to recognize previously treated animals. (4) Fertility control using long-lived agents can be more efficient than culling in regulating ungulate numbers...

Some Wildlife Agencies Not Willing to Even Allow Alternatives
Ogden Dunes, Protesters take aim against Ogden Dunes deer cull November 18, 2012 Indiana, Post-Tribune
... The deer cull has been a contentious topic since the town first applied for a permit from the Indiana Department of Natural Resources in 2011.... In August, the DNR rejected the town’s application for two options — deer contraception, and the trap and transfer of deer — while requesting more information on the four-poster insecticide method.

Some Misinformation
[comments from June 12, 2012 article in Boston.com]
Wildlife Agencies sometimes provide the public with incorrect information about this option: For example. Tina Brunjes, deer and elk program coordinator for Kentucky Fish and Wildlife, provides the following advice to communities: "Birth control drugs cost $1,000 per deer, are not 100 percent effective and doses only last for two years." quoted from Dealing with Nuisance Deer in Populated Areas September 21, 2012 Kentucky, SurfKY News
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