Long-Term Deer Exclusion Has Complex Effects On A Suburban Forest Understory

Edward K. Faison, David R. Foster, Stephen DeStefano.  

...  Native and exotic species richness were both higher in grazed than exclosure plots at the subplot scale, and native herbaceous richness was higher in grazed plots at both spatial scales. In contrast, native shrub richness increased with deer exclusion at the plot scale. Our results suggest that deer exclusion had contrasting effects on species richness, depending on plant life form, but that overall richness of both exotic and native plants declined with deer exclusion...