Reproduction and Nutrition of Desert Mule Deer With and Without Predation 2015 The Southwestern Naturalist

Arizona Deer Population, Management News and Information Archive

Reproduction and Nutrition of Desert Mule Deer With and Without Predation  R Carrera, WB Ballard, PR Krausman, J Devos Jr… - The Southwestern Naturalist, 2015
... Desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus eremicus) in central Arizona declined from 11 deer/km2 in the early 1960s to 2 deer/km2 in 2006...  Current mule deer densities in the study area are below what the environment is capable of maintaining, and a history of higher mule deer densities inside WCPPE over 40 y has not resulted in measurable impacts on the highly diverse plant communities of TBWA. Observed differences in diet quality of mule deer may be related to trade-offs incurred through predation risk, where mule deer inside the enclosure are maximizing their energy intake without the burden of predator avoidance and vigilance...

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