A review of the population dynamics of mule deer and black‐tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus in North America TD Forrester, HU Wittmer - Mammal Review, 2013

California Deer Population, Management News and Information Archive

.... Predation was the primary proximate cause of mortality for all age classes, and was an important source of summer fawn mortality and of mortality in multi-prey, multi-predator systems. However, predator removal studies suggest that predation is compensatory, particularly at high deer densities, and that nutrition and weather shape population dynamics. We propose three models to explain local population dynamics of Odocoileus hemionus: (i) populations are limited by forage availability and weather; (ii) adult females are limited by forage availability, fawns are limited by forage availability and predation, and population growth is constrained by fecundity and fawn predation; and (iii) large changes in the abundance of predators or alternative prey change predation risk and destabilize population dynamics... [this article is related to a deer study in California]

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