A review of the population dynamics of mule deer and black‐tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus in North America TD Forrester, HU Wittmer - Mammal Review, 2013

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A review of the population dynamics of mule deer and black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus in North America
Tavis D. Forrester* andHeiko U. Wittmer†
Article first published online: 21 JAN 2013

We propose three models to explain local population dynamics of Odocoileus hemionus: (i) populations are limited by forage availability and weather; (ii) adult females are limited by forage availability, fawns are limited by forage availability and predation, and population growth is constrained by fecundity and fawn predation; and (iii) large changes in the abundance of predators or alternative prey change predation risk and destabilize population dynamics.

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