White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics in a multi-predator landscape October, 2014 Michigan

Michigan Deer Population, Management News and Information Archive

... Indices of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) abundance in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan suggested the population declined 40% from the previous 5 year mean following 2 consecutive severe winters in the mid-1990s and has not since increased in population size. I collected estimates and assessed biological and environmental covariates of survival and recruitment of fawns ... Although predation was the leading cause of deer mortality, bottom-up effects of winter severity on nutritional condition and resource use appeared to be most influential to sustaining a lack of population increase. Hence, I suggest population growth could be improved through habitat management that increases landscape heterogeneity of early successional forests to enhance year-round browse to increase nutritional condition of adult females and hiding cover for fawns...

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