Earthworm invasion, white‐tailed deer and seedling establishment in deciduous forests of northeastern North America, New York A Dobson, B Blossey - Journal of Ecology, 2014

New York Deer Population, Management News and Information Archive

... survival of seedling transplants of 15 native understorey plants in 5 forests in New York State. Earthworm biomass was negatively correlated with survival of 12 of 15 species. We found no interactive effect of deer and earthworms, but did find a positive, non-consumptive effect of deer on Geranium maculatum and P. virginianum survival. Deer and earthworm presence/absence indirectly influenced other trophic levels: earthworm presence increased the likelihood of insect attack, and deer exclusion increased the likelihood of rodent attack disturbance of transplants...

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