Animal trapping records reveal strong wolf effect across North America June 16, 2014 Oregon

Oregon Deer Population, Management News and Information Archive

...a "wolf effect" exists, favoring red foxes where wolves are present and coyotes where wolves are absent... studied the influence of carnivores on their prey -- such as deer and elk -- and on vegetation from aspen trees to willows. He and his colleagues have shown that the removal of top predators can cause dramatic shifts within ecosystems...

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