Impact of ungulate exclusion on understorey succession in relation to forest management in the Intermountain Western United States, Oregon, BK Pekin, BA Endress, MJ Wisdom, BJ Naylor… - Applied Vegetation Science, 2014

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Impact of ungulate exclusion on understorey succession in relation to forest management in the Intermountain Western United States, Oregon, BK Pekin, BA Endress, MJ Wisdom, BJ Naylor… - Applied Vegetation Science, 2014
...  managed sites displayed more early succession species, such as annual forbs and annual graminoids, while unmanaged sites were dominated by late-succession species such as shrubs, subshrubs and trees. Species richness, particularly of annuals, was strongly reduced when ungulates were excluded from managed sites, and to a lesser extent from unmanaged sites for some perennial plant species. Species diversity decreased to a slightly greater extent with ungulate exclusion at managed sites. Species dominance was not influenced by ungulate exclusion....



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