An Evaluation of Roadside Activity and Behavior of Deer and Black Bear to Determine Mitigation Strategies for Animal-Vehicle Collisions [PDF] BM Donaldson, YJ Kweon, LN Lloyd - 2015 Virginia

Virginia Deer and Transportation News Archive 

... Study recommendations include (1) the installation of fencing along the roadside adjacent to existing large underpasses, and (2) an animal advisory message on the dynamic message signs along I-64 in the Afton Mountain area. Messages should be displayed from dusk through dawn from October through November (to correspond with periods of higher deer activity and DVCs). Fencing both sides of just one underpass is expected to result in a savings in costs associated with DVCs of $501,473 over its service life. ..

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