International Deer News
1080 Poison Deer Repellent not Effective - Deadly September 1, 2014 New Zealand, Scoop 
...Four deer have been found dead within a farmer's bush block, after an aerial 1080 poison drop applied with deer repellent... the deer still ate the repellent-applied poisoned baits, despite there being ample feed on the farm boundary ...

... 8,000 red deer that live on the military training site. “Grafenwoehr is home to one of the largest red deer populations in all of Germany,”  ... the lack of public access and its diverse landscape means that it has become an ideal habitat for wildlife ...

... An unknown assailant has shot and killed a rare yellow deer being kept in the Khoramabad Zoo... This is the second time in recent months that a deer in a protected area has been killed ...

Red deer filmed at nature reserve 'Het Aardhuis' located near Apeldoorn in The Netherlands. This nature reserve is an excellent spot to connect with the Dutch wildlife. You can get extremely close the game bringing good opportunities to take photographs or shoot film. In the early afternoon the deer come to the feeding location in front of the outlook. Usually they stay for a while giving you enough time to capture this magnificent animal. Check out their website for visiting times: http://www.aardhuis.nl/ - August 26, 2014


Farmed deer numbers drop according to new research August 25, 2014 Australia, Weekly Times Now
... Research found the deer industry had a significant reduction in producer numbers over the past 10 years, with a lack of processing and supply chain issues possible reasons for the decline...

Tata zoo role in rare deer survival August 19, 2014 India, The Telegraph
...  Père David’s deer, or Elaphurus davidianus, is a species found only in captivity, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature. About 1,400 deer are alive at a handful of breeding parks around the world.  The deer, distinguished by their branched antlers and a long tail, have a liking for aquatic plants...

... Officials in Umbria have drawn up plans to allow the hunting of wild deer with bows and arrows, causing an outcry among critics who say it will return the Italian region to the Dark Ages ...

... The Siberian musk deer ... Area of habitation: from the eastern Himalayas and Tibet to eastern Siberia, Korea and Sakhalin, the Amur Region and the Primorsky Territory. Approximate size of population: 120,000 -125,000 (in Russia) Instead of horns, the deer has twisted fangs protruding from below its upper lip... 

... they were killed in a war during the reign of the Tongzhi emperor in the Qing Dynasty. Those that survived were the ones that Duke of Bedford kept in his garden... Currently the park has around 200 deer. Others have been introduced to the wild, and there are now over 1,000 Pere David's deer in the wild in China...

... The Tyrolean Iceman lived between 5,300 years ago and 5,100 years ago... The clothing of the Tyrolean Iceman came from deer that originated in Western Europe. The present red deer population in the Italian Alps is derived from the eastern genetic lineage. The researchers propose that glacial movement and weather patterns promoted the change in red deer populations in the Italian Alps that was concurrent with the movement of humans...

... there are only about 1,500 Eld’s deer left in the wild, with the majority of them in the 279-square kilometre Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary in Sagaing’s Kanbalu Township.
Efforts to protect the area, however, have been hampered by illegal logging, residents of the area say...

Otago connection to the world's most expensive socks June 15, 2014 New Zealand, Otago Daily Times
... The soft down hair of New Zealand red deer is being used to make the world's most expensive socks, costing a staggering $1600 a pair... Harrys claim it is lighter and softer than cashmere, as well as being resilient to creasing...

IIT-Madras campus plans deer corridor June 15, 2014 India, Deccan Chronicle
...  Showing concern for the blackbuck population on its campus, which has increased from 13 in 2007 to 34 this year and other deer roaming its grounds, the institute has decided to create deer corridors with adequate space between buildings to allow the animals free movement...

...  so far most of the dozens of projects underway on the Continent are centered on the less radical notion of reintroducing large grazing animals that once roamed unfettered in much of Europe — wild horses, European bison, red deer, ibex — and letting bears, wolves and lynx keep them in check...

... Patricio Rodrigo, executive secretary of the Patagonia Defence Council, called the decision "the greatest triumph of the environmental movement in Chile"... The habitat of the endangered Southern Huemul deer was also seen to be under threat. Fewer than 1,000 of the diminutive animals, a national symbol, are believed to exist...

Sambar deer facing extinction in peninsula, says study June 5, 2014 Malaysia, The Star Online
...  the sambar (Rusa unicolor) is facing habitat loss from development and deforestation as well as constant poaching...

Eastern Swamp Deer census begins in Kaziranga May 8, 2014 India, Zee News 
... The eastern swamp deer, is one of the three endangered deer species existing in the world, and is found only in Kaziranga.  According to the census of December 2013, 836 swamp deers were found in the Park...

... "This boost is created by using known superior male and female genetics and the multiplication of greater numbers of offspring than natural mating. ... we are producing animals with high growth rates..."

... ‘Rhino horn and deer musk can be more valuable than gold or cocaine.’ ... The change adopted by the Standing Committee redefines what it means to purchase endangered species, making it illegal for anyone to knowingly buy or consume animals that were poached...

... In a pilot phase, five small drones -- fitted with combined digital and infrared sensors that can detect colour patterns and body heat -- have been trialed in the southern state of Bavaria to find the animals... 

... The average life expectancy for deer is 15 years and none living now would have encountered the barrier... "But the border still plays a role for them and separates the two populations,"  ... 

...  Now, a new study released today in PLOS Biology makes the case that even one of the most robust animal populations around — the roe deer of France — are having trouble keeping up with the pace of changing temperatures.... Using population data spanning the last 30 years, researchers demonstrated that roe deer in the Champagne region of France have not been able to adjust their birthing season ...

... A pair of Roosevelt's Muntjacs, also known as  Roosevelt's barking deer, was caught on a camera trap set up by scientists surveying barking deer populations at the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve ...

25 years after Iron Curtain fell, deer stay on respective sides February 24, 2014 Czech Republic, United Press International 
... after the fall of the Iron Curtain ... the behavior of deer was very traditional and they were probably very conservative, and are repeating movements probably based on respect for a border that is no longer there ...

Fluorescent Deer Antlers: Do They Work? February 20, 2014 Finland, WebProNews ·
... Hitting a deer can be an awful experience ... attempts to make reindeer more visible on roadways ... painted the antlers of 20 reindeer with various fluorescent dyes. The group will monitor the deer for several weeks to determine which dyes are the easiest to see and how they hold up to the Arctic cold...

... The program on restoration of the Caucasian red deer population in Armenia is entering its crucial phase. Head of WWF Armenia Karen Manvelyan has told ArmInfo that the talks on acquisition of the Caucasian red deer are already underway...

Hangul deer prepares to fight Kashmir winter January 7, 2014 India, The Hindu
... The endangered ‘Hangul,’ a rare species of red deer, is preparing to fight the bone chilling winter in the snow-laden Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary located on the outskirts of Srinagar. Forest rangers said they have made special food arrangements to keep the antlered stag in good health....

Milk and cheese, deer?  January 2, 2014 New Zealand, ABC Online
... A New Zealand farmer and a cheese-maker have joined forces to craft what they hope will be the world's first commercially produced cheese using deer milk.  Scientists say deer milk is rich in nutrients and protein and could also have wide-ranging therapeutic and cosmetic uses ...




DeerLab.org:  specializes in wildlife management and conservation throughout Patagonia.  Over 100 publications that can be downloaded.  Includes study of Patagonian huemul, an endangered deer of the southern Andes whose recovery has yet to be secured. Little is known about its biology and ecology, and the few remaining populations, located in remote areas, present a challenge to study.

Deer Research

Population control based on abundance estimates: Frequency does not compensate for uncertainty  R Hagen, S Kramer-Schadt, L Fahse, M Heurich - Ecological Complexity, 2014
... we developed an age-structured population model for roe deer, one of the most common ungulates in Europe. The model simulates hunting processes that are affected by uncertainties related to abundance estimates and species demography. The results indicated that uncertainty related to abundance estimates largely reduced the ability to achieve target population densities. Surprisingly, this effect was not weakened by more frequent estimations. We conclude that decreasing the interval of abundance estimates counterintuitively cannot compensate for lacking accuracy. 

Ungulate browsing on conifers during summer as revealed by DNA RV Nichols, G Spong - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 2014
...  Across Sweden, ungulate communities comprise multiple coexisting species, making it a challenge to determine which herbivore species have caused the browsing damages... Browsed twig samples were sent to us so that we could identify the responsible browsing species using DNA. We discovered that 73.7% of the damages were actually attributable to moose with 24.7% caused by red deer and 1.5% by fallow deer...

Habitat Use of Sichuan Sika Deer in Forest, Bush and Meadows in the Tiebu Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China  C Zhao, J Hu, Y Li, J Ran, J Guan, C Yang, Y Xiong… - Pakistan J. Zool, 2014
... In forest, Sichuan sika deer preferred the sites with a high density of herbs. In bush, Sichuan sika deer’s occurrence was significantly correlated with greater distances from habitations and shorter distances to water. In meadows, Sichuan sika deer preferred the sites with gradual slopes and proximity to water. Water and disturbance could be treated as key factors that influence the habitat use of Sichuan sika deer in meadow and bush habitat. Food availability may affect the habitat use of Sichuan sika deer in forest and bush. Thus, protecting all three vegetation types is one of the important objectives for the conservation of the endangered Sichuan sika deer...

C Rosin - Forest Ecology and Management, 2014
...  Vertebrate seed dispersers are often heavily hunted, resulting in reduced seed movement for many species and a shift in community composition to favor those plants dispersed by small animals and abiotic means. Timber species with large seeds and fleshy fruit are at particular risk for dispersal and recruitment failure. Hunting also alters granivore communities, resulting in increased predation on species favored by insects and small rodents, and changing the spatial template of seed predation, with detrimental effects on many timber species. Large vertebrate herbivores decline with hunting pressure, resulting in the modification of plant competitive interactions. This is disadvantageous to several traits that are common among timber trees, including relatively slow growth and high wood density...

... at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia... Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation... Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. ... Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

...Deer (Cervidae) cause considerable damage to forest plantations, crops, and protected habitats. The most common response to this damage is to implement strategies to lower population densities ... On the landscape scale, damage level was negatively related to availability of forage in the field and shrub layers and proportion forest, but was not related to any of the relative deer density indices. Increasing alternative forage may thus decrease damage and thereby reduce conflicts. Additionally, the proportion of forest in the landscape affects damage levels and should thus be considered in landscape planning and when forecasting damage risk...

Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer  JF Lemaître, JM Gaillard, JM Pemberton… - Proceedings of the Royal …, 2014
... The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence... Males that carried antlers with more points during early life did not show more pronounced declines in reproductive traits in later life ...

Capture myopathy in a corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus (Ungulata: Cervidae)  S Nuvoli, GP Burrai, F Secci, N Columbano… - Italian Journal of Zoology, 2014
... The present study focused on the importance of translocation as stressful event in an endangered cervid species causing fatal consequences during capture operations. Fourteen free-ranging Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) have been captured for restocking ... Sixteen hours after the release, a pregnant hind was found dead and a complete necropsy was performed. Post-capture blood samples showed increased levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cortisol and potassium and were highly indicative of stress-linked muscle damage...

C Li, H Zhao, Z Liu, C McMahon - The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell …, 2014
... Deer antler is the only mammalian organ that can fully grow back once lost from its pedicle – the base from which it grows. Therefore, antlers probably offer the most pertinent model for studying organ regeneration in mammals ...  Taken together, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of antlers may provide a valuable insight to aid the field of regenerative medicine...

... I estimated, for the first time, the rate and pattern of the future spread of deer at a landscape scale across Britain, using a spatially explicit population model (SEPM)... The SEPM performed well in describing the observed spread of roe, red and muntjac deer in Britain between 1972 and 2007, and predicted the spread of, and overlap between, species to continue to increase in the future... 

...  The deer bone extract significantly suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mRNAs in the cartilage. The deer bone extract induced the up-regulation of COL2 and TIMP mRNAs and the down-regulation of MMP mRNAs by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs.  Deer bone extract alleviated inflammatory symptoms by altering the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine in osteoarthritic rats.

Long-term morphological changes in the skeleton of red deer (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) at its northern periphery J Rosvold, I Herfindal, R Andersen, AK Hufthammer - Journal of Mammalogy, 2014
... Using a data set on the skeletal morphology of Norwegian red deer (Artiodactyla, Cervidae: Cervus elaphus) spanning the last approximately 7,100 years, we document an inverse relationship between climatic conditions and body size. The size of Norwegian red deer, as estimated from both teeth and weight-bearing bones, was significantly larger during the warmer and wetter middle Holocene than it is today ...  Decreased body size may be a general response in wild ungulates to a more human-dominated landscape, resulting from reduced access to optimal habitats and high adult hunting mortality.

... Our results indicated that a connected nature reserve network is needed to protect wild ungulates in China....

Reproduction of caucasian red deer in Azerbaijan [PDF] SM Guliyev - Annals of Biological Research, 2014
... The paper contains information about reproductive features of Caucasian noble deer in Azerbaijan. Results of observations conducted in Greater and Lesser Caucasus natural regions in 1986-2012 are analyzed in comparative aspect. The differences in stages of reproductive processes depending on habitats were revealed...

BS Cohen, DA Osborn, GR Gallagher, RJ Warren… - Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2014
...  We compared intensity thresholds at the short and long wavelengths of their purported visual spectrum. Utilizing an automated training device, we trained deer to discriminate between lit and unlit light-emitting diode (LED) lights ... We confirm that these cone photoreceptors contribute to deer behavior, and that deer have a greater perceptual sensitivity to shorter wavelengths and lower sensitivity to longer wavelengths. Our findings also suggest the deer have some sensitivity to ultraviolet light...

JM O'Reilly-Wapstra, BD Moore, M Brewer, J Beaton… - … Ecology and Management, 2014
... we examine the genetic basis of recovery of Scots pine saplings following browsing by red deer ...  These data, matched with our finding of no negative relationships between any recovery traits, indicate that Scots pine is quite robust to once-off browsing events by deer. We suggest that at the sapling stage, Scots pine do not employ resistance as a strategy against deer, but tolerate deer browsing to counteract the negative impacts of herbivory. Hence, the use of recovery traits as a management tool to mitigate the negative impacts of browsing is an option worthy of further investigation.

... We have found that the main land use of the area where red deer are being raised, the type of hunting holder, and the long-term management strategies (such as fencing and the hunting practices implemented) significantly explain red deer hunting bag, which is often used as proxy of population abundance. Therefore, ecological variables alone are not always sufficient to determine big game harvests...

... First-born male deer that have relatively high levels of the male hormone testosterone are less likely to survive their first year compared with their peers, the research shows... Male deer born in the years after an older brother had lower testosterone levels than other calves...

Reliable Discrimination of 10 Ungulate Species Using High Resolution Melting Analysis of Faecal DNA [HTML] A Ramón-Laca, D Gleeson, I Yockney, M Perry… - PLOS ONE, 2014
     Identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Faecal DNA is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species...  Our HRM method enables high-throughput and cost-effective species identification from low DNA template samples, and could readily be adapted to discriminate other mammalian species from faecal DNA.

Reversible Immobilization of Free-ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) with Xylazine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole  C Sente, EL Meisingset, AL Evans, SJ Wedul… - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014
... Forty-eight free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were immobilized with xylazine (X) and tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) by dart injection during winter 2008 in Norway...  Time to standing/walking in calves and adults was 12±7 min and 12±11 min, respectively. Two capture mortalities occurred.

Effects of Capture-Related Injury on Postcapture Movement of White-Tailed Deer AC Dechen Quinn, DM Williams, WF Porter… - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014
... We captured and global positioning system–collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006–2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%)...  These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals...

J Torres-Porras, J Carranza, J Pérez-González… - European Journal of Wildlife …, 2014
Hunting can influence population structure with consequences in ecological and evolutionary processes. Populations of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Spain occur under two different management regimes:.. There is published evidence for undesirable effects of biased population sex ratio and age structure in these red deer populations. Our results indicate that this type of management may be unsustainable and recommend that harvest on males in open estates should be reduced and that on females increased, in order to maintain a more balanced population structure that may allow sustainable population dynamics and the operation of natural evolutionary processes.

K Lone, LE Loe, T Gobakken, JDC Linnell, J Odden… - Oikos, 2014
... Norway ... we investigated how predation risk was related to terrain attributes and vegetation classes/structure. As predicted, we found that increasing cover resulted in a contrasting lower predation risk from humans and higher predation risk from lynx. Greater terrain ruggedness increased the predation risk from both predators. Hence, multiple predators may create areas of contrasting risk as well as double risk in the same landscape...

An assessment of Zoonotic and Production Limiting Pathogens in Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius F Jori, J Godfroid, AL Michel, AD Potts, MR Jaumally… - Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2013
A population of approximately 70 000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius ... . The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population.

C Li, X Ping, X Lu, W Liu, H Zhu - J Biodivers Endanger Species, 2013
     South China sika deer (Cervus nippon kopschi) is a critically endangered cervid subspecies. To learn the current status of the largest population of south China sika deer in Taohongling Nature Reserve, we monitored the changes of population size from 1980 to 2011. Our survey indicated that deer population size in the core area of the reserve increased from 90 in 1983 to 312 in 1998, then decreased to 160 in 2005, and again increased to 275 in 2007 and 365 in 2011... . To provide better environment for wild sika deer, we suggest that: some measures such as prescribed burning and slash logging should be taken for restraining the arboreal succession in the reserve; deer farms of Cervus nippon hortulorum around the reserve should be reduced or removed; appropriate human activity such as restricted firewood collection might be allowed in the reserve.

... Prior to flooding, the marsh deer was distributed widely throughout the dam's catchment area; however, the marsh deer habitat was almost completely destroyed by the flooding process. This situation highlights the need to implement management strategies that ensure the survival of the remaining fragmented population...

Genetic shifts in the transition from wild to farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population PM Hernández-Mendoza, GM Parra-Bracamonte… - … Services & Management, 2013
... The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is one of the most important species related to sport hunting in northern Mexico. During the last decade, this species has been subjected to intensive breeding to achieve improvements in certain desired traits (i.e., antlers). This alleged intensive management of bringing originally wild populations into captivity might have harmful consequences on genetic diversity. In this short research paper we estimate and discuss the consequences of that transition, as assessed by a microsatellite genetic marker analysis. The results show that no short-term changes in genetic diversity parameters were promoted by captivity; however, a genetic diversity condition maintained by artificial genetic flow was identified, perhaps allowing for the required introgression of gene diversity into this closed population.

Optimal harvesting of an age-structured, two-sex herbivore–plant system O Tahvonen, J Kumpula, AJ Pekkarinen - Ecological Modelling, 2014
... This study presents an optimal harvesting model for the semi-domesticated reindeer ...  Density dependence at optimal equilibrium is realized in calf weight and in the average number of calves per female. Optimal slaughtering is concentrated on six-month-old calves. Adult females are slaughtered at the age of 9.5 years and males at the age of 5.5 years. A moderate or high interest rate increases the steady state reindeer population but decreases pasture conditions. Dynamic solutions deviate from constant escapement, implying that the optimal recovery from initially overgrazed pastures is slower than suggested in existing studies and actual policy. The shadow value for males is three times higher than for females...