International Deer News
... the deaths of more than 10 forest musk deer, which have the country's highest level of protection...

Grazing Sheep Are Driving the Extinction of a Rare Deer Species in India June 22, 2016 One Green Planet
... In Dachigam National Park, India, the world’s last Kashmir Stags are clinging on to their final 54 square miles ... “For vote bank politics, the successive governments have allowed grazing in the prohibited area to keep a particular constituency in good humor.” ...

Norway: Moose diagnosed with Chronic Wasting Disease, 2nd case in Europe June 14, 2016 outbreaknewstoday.com
... a case of the prion disease, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), in a young, pregnant moose from Selbu in Sør-Trøndelag near the Sweden border,according to a recent release (computer translated)... 

Deer Industry New Zealand Board question and answer session during 2016 New Zealand Deer Industry Conference. June 14, 2016


Rare deer spotted at high altitude June 11, 2016 China, Shanghai Daily 
...  8 sambar deer were found in Qinghai Province near the sources of the Lancang, Yangtze and Yellow rivers, more than 4,000 meters above sea level... 

... The Sangai was believed to be almost extinct by 1950, but it was re-discovered in the Keibul Lamjao Park area by the environmentalist and photographer E P Gee... 

... the carcasses of deer were found in such a large number on a farmland between Mahajan and Arjansar ... "Despite being such a serious crime, the forest department is taking the matter very casually," said Jaju...

Eastern Swamp Deer numbers on the rise in Assam's Kaziranga May 26, 2016 India, thenortheasttoday.com
... found a total of 1,148 in the park, indicating an increase of 19 individuals from the last year’s estimation...

Restoring Deer to the Huichol: Sacred Animals Return to Jalisco, Mexico May 26, 2016 Indian Country Today Media Network
... a dozen deer were captured one at a time with tranquilizer darts, the rest were gathered in a two-day period with net guns deployed from a helicopter ... moved from the state of Tamaulipas to the state of Jalisco by truck ... ... On January 22 of this year, all 30 does and three bucks were released into a holding corral ... One doe died soon after arrival. All the others were released in good condition on February 23...

... The endangered hangul ... is in the throes of extinction, largely because of human intrusions and domestic livestock grazing at its only habitat ...The 1947 hangul census recorded its number at 2,000... last census was done in 2011 when its population was found just over 200 ...

Ten milu deers (David's Deer) bred in captivity were released into the wild on Sunday in a national nature reserve in north China's Hebei Province.- May 22, 2016


... zoo officials are seeking help from National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) in keeping the disease under check. It is reported that as many as 14 deer have died in May alone...

... a bleak picture for the endangered brow-antlered deer which are battling poaching, pollution and loss of their natural habitat ... in April, there were just about 260 ...

Number of endangered Brow-antlered deer 'Sangai' increases May 14, 2016 India, thenortheasttoday.com
... The number of endangered deer ‘Sangai’ found in Manipur has increased from 204 in 2013 to 260 ...  24 Hog deer were also spotted ...

Released Pere David's deer have cubs May 10, 2016 China, China.org.cn
... Pere David's deer, endemic to the subtropics of China, have been pulled back from the brink of extinction, but they now face new uncertainty in Hunan due to Dongting Lake's rising water level in flood season. This may force them to move nearer to local villages and place them in conflict with farmers ...

Deer poaching gang busted in Bargur forests May 2, 2016 India, The Hindu
... About 70 kg of dried meat of three sambar deer, two skins, a hare skin, 12 legs of deer and a country gun were in possession ...

Mothers in this Indian tribe breastfeed deer May 1, 2016 India, The Express Tribune
... For more than half a century, mothers in the Bishnoi tribe in Rajasthan have been breastfeeding wild fawns along with their own children...  takes in orphaned and injured fawns ... The deer is believed to be a sacred animal of the community and is given special attention ...

Here are the failed attempts to place a camera on a Norwegian deer. May 1, 2016


New Threat: It is Dogs vs Deer in Karnataka's Forests Now April 30, 2016 India, The New Indian Express
... At least 20 reports of dogs attacking deer have come in recently from the Kali Tiger Reserve, and places around it ... Searching for water, deer migrate towards the cities during the summer months ...

... the captive breeding of sika deer started centuries ago, with millions bred this way ... Sika deer bred in captivity should be regulated differently than those in the wild, according to the suggestions...


Chronic wasting disease detected in Europe for first time April 21, 2016 Norway, The Wildlife Society 
    A reindeer in Norway has been diagnosed with chronic wasting disease, a deadly disease that targets cervids, earlier this month. This is the first time the disease, which was first detected in the United States in the 1960s, has reached Europe and is also the first-ever detection of the disease in a free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The reindeer was from the Nordfjella population in South Norway...

Iran: Endangered Yellow Deer Threatened By Floods April 19, 2016 Eurasia Review
...  35 head of deer were in the protected area but only a few have been sighted since the floods began.  Hoof tracks on the ground appear to indicate the deer may have escaped the protected area into the jungle...

... It has been about 10 years since local environmentalists and conservationists sadly concluded that the last of the wild whitetail deer — odocoilesis virginiansis yucatanensis — had disappeared from Mexico’s Isla Cozumel ...Photographer Tati Biermas captured Cozumel’s elusive whitetail deer on film this past October...

Deer feel the heat in Krishna Reserve Forest April 14, 2016 India, The Hindu
...  Indiscriminate hunting by local communities poses a major threat to Spotted Deer and Sambar Deer (Philippine Deer) in the Kondapalli Reserve Forest (KRF) in Krishna district... fall in Schedule IV category of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972...

Rare mouse deer seen in China April 12, 2016 Webindia 123
... Williamson's mouse deer, during field research in the forests in China's Yunnan province.... 

During the dry season, the land parches and water becomes scarce, while when it rains, water slides over the black alluvial land with little being absorbed, forming water pools especially along the Park’s southern part that connects Talpat with Bama Beach. April 3, 2016 Indonesia


Census on Sangai deer begins March 30, 2016 India, Assam Tribune
... Rucervus eldii eldii or Sangai deer, one of the rarest deers on Earth, live on floating land masses in Keibul Lamjao National Park, world’s only floating reserve ... The last Census, carried out in March, 2013, put the Sangai population at 204...

Dozens of deer shot to curb animal population March 30, 2016 Neatherlands, nltimes.nl
... For years animal rights activists tried to stop the killing of these animals, but earlier this month the court ruled against them. ..
... The court decided that the population can be reduced from 3,000 to 800. Hunting can start immediately ...

Sambar deer recovery integral to saving our tigers March 9, 2016 Malaysia,
Malaysiakini
... the government has decided to extend the hunting moratorium for sambar deer in the peninsula by another six years ... saving the sambar deer is pivotal to saving the Malayan tiger ...

Sixteen captive-raised Pere David's deer were released into the wild on Thursday to join other deer that have been living near central China's Dongting Lake since 1998. - March 5, 2016 China


First in 20 yrs: Sambar deer seen at Delhi's Central Ridge February 25, 2016 India, Hindustan Times
... A Sambar deer was recently spotted at Buddha Jayanti Park in Chanakyapuri. The large deer is native to the Indian subcontinent and is a vulnerable species ...  the first sighting in more than 20 years...

... The incidents of deer dying after being chased or bitten by dogs on the campus have peaked in the past a few months. On Tuesday, a 3-year-old deer died of shock after it had been bitten by dogs...

Poachers set forests on fire to kill musk deer February 4, 2016 India, The Tribune India
... Poachers have allegedly set the lower ridges of the Panchachuli peaks in Munsiyari town afire to kill musk deer, Himalayan black bear and other rare Himalayan animals, which are migrating from the higher reaches to the lower hills due to cold weather...

Red deer population rising January 29, 2016 Turkey, Hurriyet Daily News
... A rise seen in the population of red deer, which began in a special reproduction station established in 1991, in the Central Anatolian province of Yozgat’s Akdağmadeni district has proven satisfying for local officials... their population had jumped to 15 by the time they were released to their natural habitat in 2008...

Sightings of dead deer cause concern January 26, 2016 India, The Hindu
...spotted deer and black bucks that are being spotted in isolated places in Nalgonda district, have been facing serious threat from poachers .... an activist from Marriguda, K. Subhash said they have lodged complaints with both the district administration ....

A new reserve for the world’s smallest deer January 20, 2016 Ecuador, Mongabay 
...  the region is ecologically important and is one of the last bastions of the endangered mountain tapir, with threatened species such as spectacled bears and pudus — the world’s smallest deer — inhabiting its forests, as well...

Poachers set Kumaon foothills on fire to hunt musk deer January 13, 2016 India, Times of India
... From Monday, clouds of smokes could be seen billowing from the foothills - just two days after it received snowfall... The musk deer has been poached to the brink of extinction and is now listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature...

Centre to help protect endangered deer in Manipur January 10, 2016 India, Zee News
... Union Minister Prakash Javedkar has said the Centre will extend all help to protect the brow antlered deer whose numbers in the entire world is just 204, according to a 2013 census... a slight increase in the deer numbers. There were 180 deer in 2000 ...

... home to word’s largest populations of endangered Eld’s deer... they are now using traps made of steel wires. So we cannot hear any sound when the deer hunting is going on and cannot make arrests ...

Malaysian wildlife doomed to extinction? December 28, 2015 Malaysiakini 
... Consumption of exotic meats are still common with varieties of bush meat ranging from wild boars to sambar deer and barking deer are widely sold in farmers markets in Nabawan, in the interior of Sabah despite the state’s all out war against illegal trade and wildlife poaching...

Read more: https://www.malaysiakini.com/letters/324736#ixzz3vdFkkuZY
Fences put up to stop refugees in Europe are killing animals December 17, 2015 New Scientist
... The most widely reported victims so far are deer that died after becoming tangled in barbed-wire barriers along Croatia’s borders with neighbouring Slovenia and Hungary...

... After studying the deer it was determined that they were visiting the tracks to get iron supplements for a more balanced diet... a Yukuru ... pretty much just a regular salt lick but it contains one very important ingredient: iron ... Just drop a few Yukuru in a convenient location in the woods and let them hang out there instead ...

... Deer poachers were recently caught on camera by a WWF Romania camera trap in the Natura 2000 area Ţarcu Mountains across the Oțelu Roșu Forestry in the Carpathians. The video clearly shows [see video below] ...

Wildlife thriving in Chernobyl exclusion zone: Lynx, boar, deer and wolves roam poisoned land ... October 5, 2015 Russia, International Business Times UK
... Wildlife is thriving inside the Chernobyl exclusion zone, with elk, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and wolves flourishing at the site of the world's worst nuclear disaster. Images from Chernobyl show an abundance of animal life, similar to those seen in four uncontaminated nature reserves in the region... Scientists published their report on Chernobyl wildlife in the Cell Press journal Current Biology...

60,000 antelope died in 4 days, and no one knows why September 6, 2015 Kazakhstan, KXLF
... more than half of the country's herd, counted at 257,000 as of 2014, died ... Saigas play a critical role in the ecosystem of the arid grassland steppe ... Die-offs of saigas, including one that felled 12,000 of the stately creatures last year, have occurred frequently in recent years...

Cameras capture rare glimpse of roe deer in western Georgia [video below] August 12, 2015 Agenda.ge
... Wildlife experts are celebrating after cameras caught rare footage of a roe deer in Georgia’s Adjara region...

... tea plantations in Assam would soon be converted into wildlife havens  ... "Large mammals cannot be excluded from the tea gardens. It is part of their natural habitat. With their natural habitat depleting rapidly, more and more such animals have been taking shelter in the tea estates ... You will also find many types of deer... 

The Chinese milu, also known as Pere David's deer, were extinct in their homeland after starving peasants ate the last one. But incredibly, some survived abroad. Today in China, a growing population of wild milu have become a headache for farmers - July 17, 2015



...  The mass extinction at the end of the last Ice Age led to the disappearance of many animal species including the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros, cave bears and the Megaloceros, also known as the giant deer or Irish elk ...  still present in parts of north-western Europe after the Ice Age, before they finally disappeared about 7,000 years ago...

... Over the course of just a few weeks, as many as 120,000 saiga antelopes have fallen prey to the mystery disease. Half of these endangered animals have already succumbed to the illness — with no end in sight... death by extreme diarrhea and difficulty breathing ...

Venison prices down, deer velvet up May 29, 2015 New Zealand, Radio New Zealand
... the biggest challenge facing the industry was subdued venison prices, and maintaining farmer confidence... increasing prices for deer velvet was one of the factors driving increased confidence in the industry ...

State forest department plans deer breeding centre in Dangs May 12, 2015 India, The Indian Express
... The state forest department is coming up with a breeding centre for barking and spotted deer in Purna century near Bardipada village in North Dangs forest region... Work like fencing the area, creating drinking water facilities and raised platforms has already been started...

Barking deer caught May 12, 2015 India, E-Pao
...  A barking deer was rescued by a group of animal lovers and personnel of Kumbi Police at Terakhong of Kumbi under Bishnupur district ...

... Fifteen milus, or Pere David's deer, have recently been found dead from unknown causes in a nature reserve in north China's Hebei Province.  Fifteen out of the 20 milu deer in the Luanhe Upper River National Nature Reserve have died since last August ...

Kaziranga has over 1000 eastern swamp deer May 5, 2015 India, Times of India 
...  The Kaziranga National Park ... has recorded an increase in eastern swamp deer population as per the latest survey conducted by the forest department ... the latest census estimated 1,129 eastern swamp deer ...

Locals play saviour for injured spotted deer May 4, 2015 India, freepressjournal.in
... After spotting the full grown female deer trapped in a swamp near the Mandvipada area of Kashimira, locals informed corporator Anil Bhosale who in turn alerted the fire brigade ...

... The Keibul Lamjao, the only floating national park in the world, is home to the last of the brow-antlered deer (Rucervus eldii eldii), one of the most endangered deer in the world. It’s not certain how many survive in the 40 sq. km KLNP. A head count in April last year put the number at 204 ...



Forest officials favour relocation of Nara depot deer April 12, 2015 India, Times of India
...  Experts who visited the spot say keeping so many deer confined there is sentencing them to death...They seem to agree that relocating the deer from the place is best option...

Komi Decries Largest Killing of Reindeer in Decade April 7, 2015 Russia, The Moscow Times
... The remains of about 30 reindeer ... Hunting caribou has been outlawed in the Komi republic since 2000 after the number of wild reindeer fell to a critical level ...

A deer was 'fished' from the Adriatic Sea by fisherman close to the Italian port of Giulianova, Saturday. Onlookers filmed the deer as it was brought ashore. - April 6, 2015 Italy



   The New Zealand deer industry is today signing an agreement with one of Korea’s largest health food manufacturers, the Korea Ginseng Corporation (KGC), to help it develop more products containing NZ velvet antler. The non-binding memorandum ...

Shrinking Water Resources, Withering Pastures Put Wildlife to Risk March 19, 2015 India, The New Indian Express 
... in coastal Andhra ... With no rain for months ... Deer, sambar and wild boars are straying into human habitations in search of food and water ...

  In order to restore the ecology of Kinnersani Sanctuary, a total of 26 deer had been shifted from three different deer parks to the eco-restoration project site and are being released into the wild in a phased manner …

... The report recommends a series of actions on deer management and conservation in a number of areas including reviewing regulatory and administrative frameworks ... You can access the ‘Deer Management in Ireland – A Framework for Action’ report here:

Blackbucks on the rise in Ganjam: Census March 3, 2015 India, The Hindu
... Ganjam district is the preferred habitat of endangered blackbucks in Odisha. Villagers of Ganjam district due to their traditional religious belief consider blackbucks as incarnations of Lord Vishnu and harbingers of rain...

... Horrified ramblers in the Castile and Leon region of central Spain stumbled upon the macabre sight during an afternoon stroll... Police have launched a hunt ..

Depleting Habitat Clouds Future of Blackbucks February 3, 2015 India, The New Indian Express
... Dwindling habitats of the Blackbucks in Ganjam’s Aska block pose serious concern for the endangered species.  Despite recording a healthy rise in their population, the Blackbucks are fast losing their habitats to rapid urbanisation...

10 endangered animals in India that you should see before they vanish! January 19, 2015 travel.india.com
... The Kashmir stag also known as Hangul is a critically endangered species. This deer has a light rump patch without including the tail. Each of its antlers consists of 5 tines.  Can be spotted at: Dachigam National Park ...

... Madhya Pradesh forest department is retrying to translocate rare Swamp deer and find its second home. Earlier it had tried to translocate this deer species to Bandhavgarh, but it didn't work.  Swamp deer is the state animal and it is found only at KTR ...

...  in Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, where the wild deer were wiped out in the early 20th century ... 28 animals — have successfully adapted to the natural habitat ...

19 swamp deer translocated from Kaziranga to Manas December 28, 2014 India, Times of India 
... Nineteen swamp deer have been translocated for the first time in the country from Kaziranga National Park to Manas National Park in Assam... travelled more than 400 kms ... we have shown to the world a successful mass capture of Eastern Swamp Deer for the first time in the country...

Deer vaccine may prevent brain disorder in humans December 22, 2014 The Indian Express
... The study marks a scientific milestone as it is the successful vaccination of deer against chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal brain disorder caused by unusual infectious proteins known as prions that propagate by converting otherwise healthy proteins into a disease state...

Deer repellent is sometimes applied to 1080 poison baits in aerial poison drops across New Zealand Forests and streams. The blood-based solution is applied to the deadly cereal food baits to deter deer from eating them... December 13, 2014



15 swamp deer are here, safe and sound December 1, 2014 India, The Hindu 
... Transportation of swamp deer is considered one of the riskiest animal exchange operations between zoos... 5 swamp deer arrived by road from Lucknow ... Though one deer succumbed to stress shortly after being loaded onto the vehicle on October 24, the mission is being considered a success...

Foresters relocate 140 deer from Chennai streets to zoo November 30, 2014 India, Times of India
... The department has already relocated around 140 spotted deer have been trapped in cages in the last four months in various locations ... relocate the animals to prevent them from dying in road accidents, contracting infectious diseases or falling prey to poachers and facing attacks by street dogs. ..

Strange, fanged deer persists in Afghanistan October 31, 2014 Science Codex 
... More than 60 years after its last confirmed sighting, a strange deer with vampire-like fangs still persists in the rugged forested slopes of northeast Afghanistan according to a research team led by the Wildlife Conservation Society ...

... Genetic gains in New Zealand's farmed deer show no sign of levelling off despite tremendous advancements in antler and animal size in the last 30 years, says renowned stud breeder Clive Jermy...

... The Langenberg Wildlife Park near Zurich admits it does not have sufficient space for all its wild boar and deer, so the surplus exhibits are being served up at the visitors' restaurant.  Just metres from where the animals once frolicked in fields ...

Did Byculla Zoo make guinea pigs of tigers and deer? October 15, 2014 India, Daily News and Analysis 
... A Kharghar-based wildlife trust has complained to the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) about veterinary students carrying out a research on two Royal Bengal tigers and 12 deer from the Veermata Jijabai Bhonsle Udyan (VJBU) Zoo that involved the animals undergoing 'clinical trials' to see how they react to anaesthesia...

... Damages in the forest stands are permanently present because man with its management practice changed and imposed living conditions for deer game. Occurrence and intensity of damages by red deer did not increase, but slightly declined for 0.4% in last twenty four years. Regulations in the hunting ground and proper management by creating surface convenient for pasture, sufficient and quality food and feeding sources, facilitate setting up a balance between forest management and size of red deer population in the hunting ground...

Contamination of Roe Deer Forage in a Polluted Forest of Southern Poland  October 7, 2014 Krystyna Grodzifiska ... els-cdn.com
... During the approximately 110-day period of antler development, roe deer bucks in this forest ingested about 196 g of heavy metals ...  A sharp decline in the quality of roe deer antlers has been found in the Niepołomice Forest during the last 25 years, from the beginning of the operation of the steel mill. This decline may be the result of winter food contamination by the mill's emissions...

... Unexpectedly high levels of radioactivity have been found in Norway’s reindeer this autumn – almost 30 years after a radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere of the country following the Chernobyl tragedy ...

...  the population has risen due to plantation and sufficient water in the waterholes. The officials said they have also installed the first solar panel in the district, which is used to fill the waterholes from a 180-feet deep bore well...  "If the animals have enough area to graze, they don't go to the farms. We have done plantation in 30 hectares of land. We also have natural jungles here." ...

Fears for deer after 1080 drop September 19 2014 New Zealand, New Zealand Herald
... Despite lobbying from deerstalkers to use deer-repellent bait, the department said it could not afford modified pellets. The aerial 1080 dump beyond Glenorchy at the head of Lake Wakatipu was completed on August 30...

1080 Poison Deer Repellent not Effective - Deadly September 1, 2014 New Zealand, Scoop 
...Four deer have been found dead within a farmer's bush block, after an aerial 1080 poison drop applied with deer repellent... the deer still ate the repellent-applied poisoned baits, despite there being ample feed on the farm boundary ...

... 8,000 red deer that live on the military training site. “Grafenwoehr is home to one of the largest red deer populations in all of Germany,”  ... the lack of public access and its diverse landscape means that it has become an ideal habitat for wildlife ...

... An unknown assailant has shot and killed a rare yellow deer being kept in the Khoramabad Zoo... This is the second time in recent months that a deer in a protected area has been killed ...

Red deer filmed at nature reserve 'Het Aardhuis' located near Apeldoorn in The Netherlands. This nature reserve is an excellent spot to connect with the Dutch wildlife. You can get extremely close the game bringing good opportunities to take photographs or shoot film. In the early afternoon the deer come to the feeding location in front of the outlook. Usually they stay for a while giving you enough time to capture this magnificent animal. Check out their website for visiting times: http://www.aardhuis.nl/ - August 26, 2014


Farmed deer numbers drop according to new research August 25, 2014 Australia, Weekly Times Now
... Research found the deer industry had a significant reduction in producer numbers over the past 10 years, with a lack of processing and supply chain issues possible reasons for the decline...

Tata zoo role in rare deer survival August 19, 2014 India, The Telegraph
...  Père David’s deer, or Elaphurus davidianus, is a species found only in captivity, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature. About 1,400 deer are alive at a handful of breeding parks around the world.  The deer, distinguished by their branched antlers and a long tail, have a liking for aquatic plants...

... Officials in Umbria have drawn up plans to allow the hunting of wild deer with bows and arrows, causing an outcry among critics who say it will return the Italian region to the Dark Ages ...

... The Siberian musk deer ... Area of habitation: from the eastern Himalayas and Tibet to eastern Siberia, Korea and Sakhalin, the Amur Region and the Primorsky Territory. Approximate size of population: 120,000 -125,000 (in Russia) Instead of horns, the deer has twisted fangs protruding from below its upper lip... 

... they were killed in a war during the reign of the Tongzhi emperor in the Qing Dynasty. Those that survived were the ones that Duke of Bedford kept in his garden... Currently the park has around 200 deer. Others have been introduced to the wild, and there are now over 1,000 Pere David's deer in the wild in China...

... The Tyrolean Iceman lived between 5,300 years ago and 5,100 years ago... The clothing of the Tyrolean Iceman came from deer that originated in Western Europe. The present red deer population in the Italian Alps is derived from the eastern genetic lineage. The researchers propose that glacial movement and weather patterns promoted the change in red deer populations in the Italian Alps that was concurrent with the movement of humans...

... there are only about 1,500 Eld’s deer left in the wild, with the majority of them in the 279-square kilometre Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary in Sagaing’s Kanbalu Township.
Efforts to protect the area, however, have been hampered by illegal logging, residents of the area say...

Otago connection to the world's most expensive socks June 15, 2014 New Zealand, Otago Daily Times
... The soft down hair of New Zealand red deer is being used to make the world's most expensive socks, costing a staggering $1600 a pair... Harrys claim it is lighter and softer than cashmere, as well as being resilient to creasing...

IIT-Madras campus plans deer corridor June 15, 2014 India, Deccan Chronicle
...  Showing concern for the blackbuck population on its campus, which has increased from 13 in 2007 to 34 this year and other deer roaming its grounds, the institute has decided to create deer corridors with adequate space between buildings to allow the animals free movement...

...  so far most of the dozens of projects underway on the Continent are centered on the less radical notion of reintroducing large grazing animals that once roamed unfettered in much of Europe — wild horses, European bison, red deer, ibex — and letting bears, wolves and lynx keep them in check...

... Patricio Rodrigo, executive secretary of the Patagonia Defence Council, called the decision "the greatest triumph of the environmental movement in Chile"... The habitat of the endangered Southern Huemul deer was also seen to be under threat. Fewer than 1,000 of the diminutive animals, a national symbol, are believed to exist...

Sambar deer facing extinction in peninsula, says study June 5, 2014 Malaysia, The Star Online
...  the sambar (Rusa unicolor) is facing habitat loss from development and deforestation as well as constant poaching...

Eastern Swamp Deer census begins in Kaziranga May 8, 2014 India, Zee News 
... The eastern swamp deer, is one of the three endangered deer species existing in the world, and is found only in Kaziranga.  According to the census of December 2013, 836 swamp deers were found in the Park...

... "This boost is created by using known superior male and female genetics and the multiplication of greater numbers of offspring than natural mating. ... we are producing animals with high growth rates..."

... ‘Rhino horn and deer musk can be more valuable than gold or cocaine.’ ... The change adopted by the Standing Committee redefines what it means to purchase endangered species, making it illegal for anyone to knowingly buy or consume animals that were poached...

... In a pilot phase, five small drones -- fitted with combined digital and infrared sensors that can detect colour patterns and body heat -- have been trialed in the southern state of Bavaria to find the animals... 

... The average life expectancy for deer is 15 years and none living now would have encountered the barrier... "But the border still plays a role for them and separates the two populations,"  ... 

...  Now, a new study released today in PLOS Biology makes the case that even one of the most robust animal populations around — the roe deer of France — are having trouble keeping up with the pace of changing temperatures.... Using population data spanning the last 30 years, researchers demonstrated that roe deer in the Champagne region of France have not been able to adjust their birthing season ...

... A pair of Roosevelt's Muntjacs, also known as  Roosevelt's barking deer, was caught on a camera trap set up by scientists surveying barking deer populations at the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve ...

25 years after Iron Curtain fell, deer stay on respective sides February 24, 2014 Czech Republic, United Press International 
... after the fall of the Iron Curtain ... the behavior of deer was very traditional and they were probably very conservative, and are repeating movements probably based on respect for a border that is no longer there ...

Fluorescent Deer Antlers: Do They Work? February 20, 2014 Finland, WebProNews ·
... Hitting a deer can be an awful experience ... attempts to make reindeer more visible on roadways ... painted the antlers of 20 reindeer with various fluorescent dyes. The group will monitor the deer for several weeks to determine which dyes are the easiest to see and how they hold up to the Arctic cold...

... The program on restoration of the Caucasian red deer population in Armenia is entering its crucial phase. Head of WWF Armenia Karen Manvelyan has told ArmInfo that the talks on acquisition of the Caucasian red deer are already underway...

Hangul deer prepares to fight Kashmir winter January 7, 2014 India, The Hindu
... The endangered ‘Hangul,’ a rare species of red deer, is preparing to fight the bone chilling winter in the snow-laden Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary located on the outskirts of Srinagar. Forest rangers said they have made special food arrangements to keep the antlered stag in good health....

Milk and cheese, deer?  January 2, 2014 New Zealand, ABC Online
... A New Zealand farmer and a cheese-maker have joined forces to craft what they hope will be the world's first commercially produced cheese using deer milk.  Scientists say deer milk is rich in nutrients and protein and could also have wide-ranging therapeutic and cosmetic uses ...




DeerLab.org:  specializes in wildlife management and conservation throughout Patagonia.  Over 100 publications that can be downloaded.  Includes study of Patagonian huemul, an endangered deer of the southern Andes whose recovery has yet to be secured. Little is known about its biology and ecology, and the few remaining populations, located in remote areas, present a challenge to study.

Deer Research

Body measurements from selective hunting: biometric features of red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Northern Apennine, Italy  V Becciolini, R Bozzi, M Viliani, S Biffani, MP Ponzetta - Italian Journal of Animal …, 2016
... hind foot length was the measure which first ceased to grow and with the highest growth constant; although the relationship between cohort hind foot length and environmental, climatic and demographic variables has to be tested for red deer from Apennine, these bones appeared a suitable biological indicator for long-term monitoring of the species...

Congenital Mature Intracranial Teratoma in a Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in Brazil  SA Headley, TC Costa, RA Marcasso, CLS Hilst… - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2016
... We describe a congenital mature intracranial teratoma in a Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in southern Brazil. We found an irregular, spongy, space-occupying mass in the brain. The tumor consisted of well-differentiated tissues that derived from all three germ layers...

...  During the study period, animals of both sexes crossed the river without difference. There were crossings in all seasons, in daytime and nighttime also. We could not find any difference between the seasons, but there were more crossings in the daytime when we excluded the data of an outlier animal. Water level or human disturbance (live brown hare capture) had no impact on crossings. We conclude that the Tisza River does not represent a real barrier to the movements of roe deer,

Compass-controlled escape behavior in roe deer  P Obleser, V Hart, EP Malkemper, S Begall, M Holá… - Behavioral Ecology and …, 2016
... This is the first study of escape behavior in animals which considers also the role of absolute compass direction. Our findings confirm existence of magnetic alignment and thus magnetosensitivity in the roe deer and provide first evidence for its role as the so-called direction indicator in control of escape behavior in roe deer in particular and in mammals in general. Our results make the speculations more plausible that the magnetic alignment helps to organize and read the mental (cognitive) map of space...

Japan's monkeys wash their potatoes and ride deer like horses June 8, 2016 ResearchGate
... My favorite behavior is that of a macaque riding on the backs of Sika deer. There is a close cooperation between macaques and deer on Yakushima island. The deer eat seeds dropped by macaques on the ground, as well as their feces. Macaques may groom the deer for parasites such as lice, which are rich in proteins. At times, macaques will climb on the back of a deer for transportation ...

Deer make collision-free escapes thanks to inbuilt 'compasses' June 7, 2016 
Science Daily
... Their getaway is almost always along a north-south axis, thanks to their ability to sense the magnetic field, says Petr Obleser of the Czech University of Life Sciences ... roe deer tend to align their bodies along the north-south axis when grazing. When startled, the animals generally fled away from observers. They did not merely make their getaway in the direction directly opposite to the approaching threat ...

Musk Deer Trade and Worldwide Depletion M Ali - Environmental Policy and Law, 2016
...  A strange inhabitant of the forested hills of eastern Asia is the musk deer. Not much bigger than a large hare and covered by a thick coarse coat, it differs from most deer in several other startling ways. The male does not have antlers, but does grow a pair of curved tusks  ... Musk deer are evolutionarily primitive,  and have now been excluded from the family Cervidae. Unlike deer, they possess a gall bladder ...

Long term assessment of roe deer reintroductions in North East Spain: A case of success  RT Torres, J Carvalho, C Fonseca, E Serrano… - … Biology-Zeitschrift für …, 2016
... we evaluated the contribution of roe deer Capreolus capreolus reintroductions (1971–2008) to the current distribution of this species in Catalonia (Spain) ... Our results show that roe deer currently occupies 85% of Catalonia territory, which represents an almost six-fold increase since the beginning of the 90s. Proximity to the nearest reintroduction nuclei was identified as one of the main drivers positively associated to the current distribution of roe deer ...

... Our results emphasize that although deer overabundance is of concern, their complete exclusion has a negative consequence from an ecological perspective. Because deer herbivory is an inherent process that affects the biodiversity of plants on the forest floor, the establishment of fences requires careful consideration to ensure the conservation of ecological processes and their associated biodiversity...

Historical Range and Present Status of Hangul Deer CERVUS ELAPHUS HANGLU In Kashmir, India  [PDF will download]  BA Bhat, MF Fazili - Global Journal For Research Analysis, 2016
... At present, the only viable population of red deer of Kashmir is confined to Dachigam National Park (DNP), with a few isolated hangul herds in its adjoining protected areas (Ahmad et al 2009). The park is situated 21km northeast of Srinagar ...

Modeling the impact of selective harvesting on red deer antlers RA Pozo, S Schindler, S Cubaynes, JJ Cusack… - The Journal of Wildlife …, 2016
... When male mortality rates due to hunting were <20%, the effect on antler size distribution and the reproductive value function were relatively small. However, as mortality due to hunting increased to 50% in large individuals, the direct effects of hunting on mean antler size and reproductive value became evident...

TJ Neuman, CH Newbolt, SS Ditchkoff, TD Steury - Journal of Mammalogy, 2016
...  We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to assign parentage and reconstruct the pedigree of a captive population of white-tailed deer ... Age differences between mated pairs did not differ from random pairings and we found no apparent relationship of skeletal size between pairs. Our results highlight the plasticity of mating success for white-tailed deer and we speculate their mating system has evolved to maximize fertility...

K Frank, E Barta, NÁ Bana, J Nagy, P Horn, L Orosz… - Acta Biologica Hungarica, 2016
... determined the complete mitochondrial genome of a Central European red deer, Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, from Hungary by a next generation sequencing technology. The mitochondrial genome is 16 354 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region, all of which are arranged similar as in other vertebrates...

MB Mahre, H Wahid, Y Rosnina, FFA Jesse, AZ Jaji… - Sokoto Journal of Veterinary …, 2016
... The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer ... Unlike the red brocket deer and pampas deer, the cervix of R. timorensis was characterized by six cervical rings projecting into the cervical canal. This feature should be taken into account when designing effective instrumentation and techniques for transcervical passage of semen during artificial insemination in this species...

Growth and Age Structure in an Introduced and Hunted Cervid Population: White-Tailed Deer in Finland  J Kekkonen, M Wikström, I Ala-Ajos, V Lappalainen… - Annales Zoologici Fennici, 2016
... The sample indicated a deficit of older males in the population. Females seem to gain their size at the age of two while males continue to increase their body size and that of skeletal traits until the age of four. The size traits measured were similar to those in the North American studies. Based on population growth patterns and introduction history, the white-tailed deer population is performing well in Finland but the potentially skewed sex-specific age distribution warrants further attention....

N Kanstrup, TJS Balsby, VG Thomas - European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016
... For red deer, we were not able to show any statistical significant difference between performance of non-lead and lead bullet. For roe deer, we found a small, statistically significant, relation between flight distances and shooting distance for roe deer struck with non-lead bullets but not with lead bullets. However, this difference was not of such magnitude as to have any practical significance under hunting conditions...

... both the population numbers and harvesting of roe deer in Poland have been on the increase from 597,000 to 876,000 animals and from 158,000 to 172,000 harvested individuals, respectively. ... The average population number of roe deer assessed for these four years was 3568 individuals and was more than two times higher than the average population size (n = 1670) given by hunters....

... the 40-year study to determine the extent of inbreeding on the ability of each animal to reproduce and successfully raise offspring....  Inbred mothers give birth to calves whose chances of survival are almost as bad as if the calves themselves were inbred." ... Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...

... Adult deer living on Pedro González island 6,000 years ago weighed less than 22 pounds, about as much as a beagle ... Some deer bones had cuts indicating butchering ... The number of deer bones decreased in the youngest layer of the midden, and those of older adults were absent, suggesting that the species was becoming scarcer and life expectancies lower...

...  Calculations of genetic diversity and effective population sizes (linkage-disequilibrium approach) yielded the lowest results for Italian (Sardinia, Mesola; Ne between two and eight) and Scandinavian red deer, in line with known bottlenecks in these populations. Our study is the first to present comparative nuclear genetic data in red deer across Europe ...

... the humid tropical forests of Mexico and Central America could have been the most likely place of origin of members of the red brocket deer clade. Deer colonization into South America occurred after the complete formation of the Panamanian land bridge in the late Pliocene, more than one ancestor of the gray brocket deer clade crossed into South America, as well as a red brocket deer ancestor and Odocoileus dispersed southward...

    The regeneration of antler velvet represents a new form of stem-cell-derived full skin regeneration, including associated appendages...  The data generated in this study represent the most comprehensive sequence resource available for regenerating velvet skin in red deer antlers and provide a basis for further research on deer antler molecular genetics and functional genomics.

... Traditionally, these sorts of studies require a manual survey and plenty of theoretical calculations, but Fujitsu is hoping to build software that is significantly more accurate... ... Fujitsu would be interested in helping forest researchers build fences to keep deer penned in .... Rather than instituting a series of widespread culls that could do more harm than good ...

Molecular detection and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China  W Cong, SY Qin, QF Meng, FC Zou, AD Qian, XQ Zhu - Infection, Genetics and …, 2016
     The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in sika deer in China... results of the present study revealed the existence of T. gondii infection in sika deer in China, which provided the information of T. gondii genetic diversity in this host species. This study also indicated that ToxoDB Genotype #9 has a wide distribution in sika deer that could be potential reservoirs for T. gondii transmission, which may pose a threat to human health...

Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss  E Di Minin, N Leader-Williams, CJA Bradshaw - Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 2015
... International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species....

M Warchałowski, P Nowakowski, A Dancewicz - 2015
... The least adapted to local weather conditions was mouflon introduced to this area ca. 100 years ago from more southern parts of Europe. Roe deer species seems to be
environmentally plastic, and are doing quite well in severe winters. Tolerance of red deer to the snow cover is much lower at low temperatures due to the fact that this species, during the period of snow cover, has limited access to the plants covered with snow and difficult access to food base.

D González-Barrio, IG Fernández-de-Mera, JA Ortiz… - Frontiers in Veterinary …, 2015
...These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based on humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6 months...

Stem Cells, Stem Cell Niche and Mammalian organ Regeneration-Insights from Studying Deer Antler Biology [PDF will download] C Li - SM Journal of Stem Cell Research, 2015
... Organ regeneration is the “Holy Grail” of modern regenerative medicine. To realize this dream, regenerative medicine must be underpinned by regenerative biology, which seeks to understand the mechanism of regeneration through investigation of different model systems. Among these systems, deer antler stands out as the only mammalian appendage capable of complete renewal ...

H Kobayashi, K Muramatsu, J Okuno, K Nakamura… - 2015
...  this paper presents an experimental interface of such non-verbal interaction for HCI application designs through an imaginable interaction with nature by a Playful Rocksalt system. In order to make the experience, this study achieves the goal through two subsystes, Panorama-viewer of forest and Remote animal sensing. The former is an application by which users can look out over the forest landscape in all directions
with a gyro-sensor inside PDA...

Y Cai, E Pei, X Yuan - Pakistan J. Zool, 2015
... This communication reports some evidence of the reintroduced Chinese water deer surviving in the Nanhui Wildlife Sanctuary, Shanghai, China. Deer were still present in the sanctuary in 2014 and evidence of breeding was also recorded. Historically, the deer was last recorded in Shanghai in 1890. The Chinese Water Deer Reintroduction Project was
started in Shanghai in 2006, in order to restore the native Chinese water deer population.

Employing Ultrahigh-Frequency RFID Technology on Deer Farm Managment  L Hsiao-Mei, W Chih-Hwa, H Yan-Der, H Kuo-Hsiang - Indian Journal of Animal …, 2015
... This project uses ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) ear tags and readers with a readable range of 3 to 5 m. Forty stags were tagged with radio-frequency identification (RFID) ear tags and allocated into 20 pens. When deer with RFID ear tags walked through the aisle, handheld RFID readers, used as personal digital assistants (PDAs), and stationary RFID readers in frequency range received signals from the tags, and individual deer tag data were transmitted immediately and completely through wireless PDAs to a computer. The inputted data were sent to the deer-farm management system to be collated and organized. Farmers obtained individual deer data without approaching the deer, which decreased the risk of the deer attacking. Employing UHF-RFID technology integrated with software contributes to enhancing the efficiency of deer identification and farm management.,,

Predator exclusion as a management option for increasing white‐tailed deer recruitment  LM Conner, MJ Cherry, BT Rutledge, CH Killmaster… Journal of Wildlife Management, 2015
... In 2003, we constructed 4 40-ha mesopredator exclosures with the objective of quantifying the influence of mesopredators, including coyotes, on select wildlife populations and communities. Camera trapping indicated neonate/adult female white-tailed deer ratios were approximately 2 times greater inside predator exclosures than in control plots...

... After becoming familiar with food distribution and shelter conditions, they dispersed further in order to avoid predation risk. In order to improve the survival rate of reintroduced deer, we suggest releasing the adult individuals of robust physique into the wild in future programmes, and more attention should be paid to the initial 9 days after releasing the species. Increasing the local experience of the captive-born animals and helping them become familiar with the new wild habitat will improve the survival rate in future reintroductions...

Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy  F Caloni, M Chiari, C Cortinovis, M Bertoletti, L Alborali… - Food Additives & …, 2015
... Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer respectively ... . The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans...

The predator-prey power law: Biomass scaling across terrestrial and aquatic biomes September 4, 2015 Science, Ian A. Hatton, Kevin S. McCann, John M. Fryxell, T. Jonathan Davies, Matteo Smerlak, Anthony R. E. Sinclair, Michel Loreau
... . We show a robust scaling law that emerges uniquely at the level of whole ecosystems and is conserved across terrestrial and aquatic biomes worldwide. This pattern describes the changing structure and productivity of the predator-prey biomass pyramid, which represents the biomass of communities at different levels of the food chain. Scaling exponents of the relation between predator versus prey biomass and community production versus biomass are often near ¾, which indicates that very different communities of species exhibit similar high-level structure and function...

M Nevřelová, J Ružičková - Ekológia (Bratislava), 2015
... The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia ... After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7%) of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%).

How many are there? Multiple-covariate distance sampling for monitoring pampas deer in Corrientes, Argentina T Zamboni, A Delgado, I Jiménez-Pérez, C De Angelo - Wildlife Research, 2015
...  Population surveys using covariate distance sampling on ground line transects can provide more realistic population estimates than do other simpler methods. Our population estimates and methods can be used as a baseline for future monitoring of this population, as long as factors such as sampling effort, type of roads for locating transects, and habitat type are considered in future analysis...

... Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. ..

... Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an east-west gradient. The results suggest at least three distinct management units of roe deer in continental Asia, although genetic admixture is evident in some border areas. The insights obtained from this study shed light on management of Siberian roe deer in Asia and may be applied in conservation of local populations of Siberian roe deer...

Density, occupancy, and activity pattern of two sympatric deer (Mazama) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil  ÁC Ferreguetti, WM Tomás, HG Bergallo - Journal of Mammalogy, 2015
... The red brocket (Mazama americana) and gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) are sympatric in the Atlantic Forest and present a number of ecological similarities in their diet and habitat use ... We conclude that, despite the abundance of these sympatric species, and their occupation of the same habitats, they may avoid competing for habitat and feeding resources through differences in their activity patterns...

Developing genomic tools in the New Zealand Deer Industry SJ Rowe, SM Clarke, TC Van Stijn, DL Hyndman… - Proceedings of the New …, 2015
... The New Zealand deer industry currently uses genomic technology via microsatellite markers to assign parentage and breed. In many other species, microsatellites have been superseded by SNP markers, which are more abundant in the genome and technically easier to use. SNP assays or ‘chips’ that record thousands to hundreds of thousands of markers have now been developed in many species including humans, pigs and cattle... 

Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer  FJ Pérez-Barbería, J Carranza, C Sánchez-Prieto - PLOS ONE, 2015
... These results illustrate how independent selection in both subspecies, that diverged 11,700 years BP, has resulted in the evolution of different longevity, although sexual selection has maintained a similar pattern of relative sex differences in tooth depletion. This study opens interesting questions on optimal allocation in life history trade-offs and the independent evolution of allopatric populations...

Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)  S Uccheddu, G Body, RB Weladji, Ø Holand… - Oecologia, 2015
... Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level... these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6–7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males.

A simple and effective method for obtaining mammal DNA from faeces  A Ramón-Laca, L Soriano, D Gleeson, JA Godoy - Wildlife Biology, 2015
... Results from these comparisons show that swabbing the samples in situ not only simplifies field collection and sample handling in the laboratory, but generally optimises target DNA recovery, minimises co-purification of PCR inhibitors and provides good quality DNA for the species tested, especially for herbivores. This method is also less time-consuming and more cost-effective ...

Stabilization Points in Carrying Capacity: Population Growth and Migrations [This link will download a PDF] A Diachenko, EBW Zubrow - Journal of Neolithic Archaeology, 2015
... Using simulations based upon well-known mathematical approaches in theoretical ecology, one calculates carrying capacity out of the trends in a demographic development. It is an alternative to most approaches in archaeology and anthropology concerning potential
resources and the cost of labor. Finally, this approach is also useful for the analysis of migrations and site catchments...

...The alpine musk deer, Moschus chrysogaster, a small member of family Moschidae, is a primitive deer threatened due to poaching and habitat loss, and therefore classified ...  The most preferred plant species of the animals were found to be Gaultheria trichophylla, Ophiopogon intermedius., Cyperus sp. and Sibbaldia cuneata. During the field survey, opportunistic sightings of the species were also recorded. The species was found to be restricted to areas where the density of preferred vegetation was high. Therefore, it is recommended to provide strict protection to the areas such as Shokhark...

...  the percentage or frequency of browsed twigs and seedlings is a useful index of the impact of deer on forests, differences in the browse preferences of deer among tree species should also be considered... The tract coefficients are considered to be an index of deer impact levels and can be estimated from the percentage of browsed seedlings for a species if the species coefficient is given. Simple percentages of browsed seedlings can also be used as an index of impact level, regardless of browse preferences, though these may be inaccurate, especially when the site is dominated by significantly preferred or avoided species...

... In this study, we compare the results of roe deer sampling based on distance detection performed by two techniques: surveys on foot in the evening and nocturnal surveys by car... when it is necessary to estimate absolute densities of roe deer populations, nocturnal distance sampling by car seems to be the most appropriate method due to its low cost, yet the influence of the vehicle on the distribution of roe deer and, therefore, on the estimated density, must be taken into account when carrying out such studies.

... The results show that: using the MCP method, the average home range size of Chinese water deer was estimated to be 671 ha (range 245-1559 ha), while using the 95% FKE method, the average was estimated to be 262 ha (range 43-435 ha). The average home range size of a buck was smaller than that of a doe by both MCP and FKE. The average home range size of an adult female was smaller than that of a sub-adult female. The largest seasonal home range size (MCP, 275 ha) occurred during the first year’s winter, which then kept shrinking in spring and summer. Home range overlap was found among each individual’s home range...

Effectiveness of an acoustic wildlife warning device using natural calls to reduce the risk of train collisions with animals J Babińska-Werka, D Krauze-Gryz, M Wasilewski… - … Research Part D: Transport …, 2015
... The subject of study was the effectiveness of the UOZ-1 device – which emits the natural warning calls of animals – in protecting animals living near railway tracks... With sound signals emitted, animals escaped more often (84% vs. 68%), and their reaction to an oncoming train was 20 s faster. We found no proof that animals habituated to the warning signals ...

... The Alpine musk deer Moschus chrysogaster, a small member of family Moschidae is a primitive deer threatened due to poaching and habitat loss ... the species is legally protected in India ... The study shows that the musk deer is predominantly a browser. The most preferred plant species of the animal were found to be Gaultheria trichophylla, Ophiopogon intermedius...

... This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer ...  it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase
concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth.
... This study represents the first analysis of livestock influence over individual mammal species in NW Argentina forests. Through camera-trapping, I found a negative correlation between frequencies of occurrence of livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) and Gray brocket deer Mazama goauzoubira, and a modification of the daily activities patterns of the latter according to changes in density of the former. ...

M Hoffmann, JW Duckworth, K Holmes, DP Mallon… - Conservation Biology, 2015
... We estimated that without conservation at least 148 species would have deteriorated by one International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List category, including 6 species that now would be listed as extinct or extinct in the wild. The overall decline in the conservation status of ungulates would have been nearly 8 times worse than observed. This trend would have been greater still if not for conservation on private lands....

... Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers...

Population Density of the Endangered Forest Musk Deer, Moschus berezovskii, in China [PDF] G Yao, BB Wang, Y Zhu, QH Wan, SG Fang - Pakistan J. Zool, 2015
...  Our results suggested the indices of abundance varies according to the geographical variation, which may attribute to the economic imbalance between eastern part and western in China. In addition, many human disturbances were present in the habitat of Chinese forest musk deer. Extensive poaching was currently being practiced, as revealed by our field observation of 0.14 snares/km2.  In addition, the population trend in Mayuhe and Yele seemed to be decreasing...

...  this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics...

...  known as the Irish Elk, a massive creature that stood 7ft (2 meters) tall and had antlers up to 10ft (up to 3.5 meters) wide, all but died out at around the time of the end of last Ice Age about 10,300 years ago.  ...  in the highly-ranked scientific journal, Quaternary Science Reviews, the experts have extended the early Holocene habitat of the animal at least 2,400km to the east...

... a common feature of both valuation and cost studies is the exclusion of several costs and benefits items and of indirect effects in the economies, which can be considerable for economies with high reliance on tourism and agriculture sectors. With respect to policy choice, the literature suggests economic incentives for conflict resolutions, where the winners from wildlife compensate the losses, but studies evaluating such policies in practice are lacking...

... we provide an integrative multi-scale study of roe deer spatial responses to variable hunting pressure along a landscape gradient of open habitats and dispersed refuges ... We found that when risk was high, roe deer did not shift their home-range, but generally decreased their use of risky habitats, and sometimes reduced their distance to cover (particularly older animals). There was a functional response in between-habitat selection, with animals living in more open landscapes responding more than those living in landscapes with more refuges. However, individuals living in more open landscapes avoided open risky habitat less ...

... The Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) suffered a striking collapse of its populations during the first half of the 20th century due to excessive hunting. In Andalusia, southern Spain, re-colonization took place from a few relict populations through natural dispersal, and through artificial reintroductions for big-game hunting ... We suggest that new herds should be established using individuals from the different genetic clusters, and a careful monitoring of the breeder's genetic background to prevent further inbreeding and inadvertent hybridization...

... We recognized three historical phases and one sub-phase of demographic reduction and collapse: “Aristocratic hunting” phase (15th Century), “Fire weapons and people hunting” phase (from 16th to 18th Century), “Habitat collapse” phase (19th and 20th Century), with a sub-phase of “genetic introgression” beginning in the 1940s...

Z Liu, J Wang, Y Sun, Z Hou, L Teng - Mitochondrial DNA, 2015
... he complete mitochondrial genome of a wild red deer from Helan Mountain, China was sequenced and annotated newly. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,428 bp, with a base composition of 33.3% A, 28.8% T, 24.4% C and 13.5% G, and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region...

... during hunting, when food was also scarce, both sexes selected home ranges with high proportions of the habitats perceived as safe, in which they performed all their activities. This result suggested that risk avoidance exceeded all the other individual and environmental factors in the hierarchy of the determinants of habitat selection during the hunting period...

High Juvenile Mortality Is Associated with Sex-Specific Adult Survival and Lifespan in Wild Roe Deer  M Garratt, JF Lemaître, M Douhard, C Bonenfant… - Current Biology, 2015
... We show that sex differences in adult survival and lifespan in cohorts of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) range from virtually absent in some years to females living 30% longer than males in others. The extent of this sex difference in adult longevity is strongly linked to the level of mortality each cohort experiences as juveniles, with high juvenile mortality generating a strong sex difference in both adult survival and lifespan. In females, high juvenile mortality leads to increased adult survival for those remaining individuals, whereas in males survival is actually reduced...

J Duarte, MA Farfán, JE Fa, JM Vargas - European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2015
...  We found a significant increase in the density of both these deer species in the area following the rezoning, probably due to the creation of more favourable habitat for deer and the cessation of hunting activity. Deer preferred the urbanised areas and especially the golf courses...

Do relatives like to stay closer? Spatial organization and genetic relatedness in a mountain roe deer population D Biosa, S Grignolio, N Sica, N Pagon, M Scandura… - Journal of Zoology, 2015
...  We found that genetic relatedness tended to increase with home range proximity, but mostly in winter. Nevertheless, when the extent of overlap between seasonal home ranges with respect to genetic relatedness was considered, males and females seemed to preferably share their home range with relatives of the same sex, reducing the overlap with relatives of the opposite sex during the rutting period. We conclude that home range rearrangements during the breeding season may afford a certain level of spatial segregation between closely related potential mates, thus reducing inbreeding risk.

RV Nichols, JPGM Cromsigt, G Spong - Oecologia, 2014
... Although the deer species differed in mean browsing height, species were comparable in terms of their minimum browsing height of ~20 cm. This means that height and diameter ranges of the smaller species were found to be completely inside the ranges of the larger species. Hence, while moose may access exclusive food resources in terms of browse height and diameter, red and roe deer cannot.

... Airborne laser scanning (ALS) can give direct and detailed measurements of vegetation structure. We assessed the effectiveness of ALS data to predict (1) the distribution of browse forage resources and (2) moose (Alces alces) habitat selection in southern Norway.... The auxiliary information on vegetation structure from ALS improved the prediction of browse moderately, but greatly improved the analysis of habitat selection, as it captured important functional gradients in the habitat apart from forage. We conclude that ALS is an effective and valuable tool for wildlife managers and ecologists to estimate the distribution of large herbivores...

Multiple pathways mediate the effects of climate change on maternal reproductive traits in a red deer population KV Stopher, AI Bento, TH Clutton-Brock, JM Pemberton… - Ecology, 2014 United Kingdom
... In general, warmer temperatures were associated with earlier birth dates and greater birth mass, and higher rainfall was associated with reduced juvenile survival and reduced female fecundity. We also examined concurrent effects of population density, maternal age, and reproductive history, and found that temporal stasis in average trait values, at least in part, could be explained by antagonistic roles of direct and indirect effects of changing climate and increasing population density...

... This study found that red deer show significantly different dietary intake due to sex; with females consuming a diet much higher in grasses, while males consume more trees and shrubs...

YS Huo, H Huo, J Zhang - Chinese journal of integrative medicine, 2014
... Deer velvet antler is the only mammal organ which can continuous regenerate... The international antler research has entered the stage of molecular biology, and will no doubt have a profound impact on the modern biomedical fields, such as regenerative medicine, organ degeneration and dysplasia, trauma medicine and anti-inflammatory treatment, growth factor research, as well as creation of new medical thinking...

Gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated Norwegian population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) [PDF] RK Davidson, SJ Kutz, K Madslien, E Hoberg… - Acta Veterinaria …, 2014
... This isolated population was parasitised by a reduced subset of gastrointestinal nematodes typical of this cervid across an extensive geographic range in Eurasia. The intensity and abundance of abomasal nematodes was higher in this isolated population than reported in similar studies of red deer populations across Europe...

Using zero-inlated models to predict the relative distribution and abundance of roe deer over very large spatial scales  Y Bouyer, T Rigot, M Panzacchi, B Van Moorter… - Annales Zoologici Fennici, 2015
... In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution and abundance. However, the massive spatial scales at which large carnivores use the landscape presents many practical and statistical challenges for developing functional prey distribution models... The map generated can facilitate both the study of broad scale processes linking predators and prey as well as roe deer management in southeastern Norway.

Population control based on abundance estimates: Frequency does not compensate for uncertainty  R Hagen, S Kramer-Schadt, L Fahse, M Heurich - Ecological Complexity, 2014
... we developed an age-structured population model for roe deer, one of the most common ungulates in Europe. The model simulates hunting processes that are affected by uncertainties related to abundance estimates and species demography. The results indicated that uncertainty related to abundance estimates largely reduced the ability to achieve target population densities. Surprisingly, this effect was not weakened by more frequent estimations. We conclude that decreasing the interval of abundance estimates counterintuitively cannot compensate for lacking accuracy. 

Ungulate browsing on conifers during summer as revealed by DNA RV Nichols, G Spong - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 2014
...  Across Sweden, ungulate communities comprise multiple coexisting species, making it a challenge to determine which herbivore species have caused the browsing damages... Browsed twig samples were sent to us so that we could identify the responsible browsing species using DNA. We discovered that 73.7% of the damages were actually attributable to moose with 24.7% caused by red deer and 1.5% by fallow deer...

Habitat Use of Sichuan Sika Deer in Forest, Bush and Meadows in the Tiebu Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China  C Zhao, J Hu, Y Li, J Ran, J Guan, C Yang, Y Xiong… - Pakistan J. Zool, 2014
... In forest, Sichuan sika deer preferred the sites with a high density of herbs. In bush, Sichuan sika deer’s occurrence was significantly correlated with greater distances from habitations and shorter distances to water. In meadows, Sichuan sika deer preferred the sites with gradual slopes and proximity to water. Water and disturbance could be treated as key factors that influence the habitat use of Sichuan sika deer in meadow and bush habitat. Food availability may affect the habitat use of Sichuan sika deer in forest and bush. Thus, protecting all three vegetation types is one of the important objectives for the conservation of the endangered Sichuan sika deer...

C Rosin - Forest Ecology and Management, 2014
...  Vertebrate seed dispersers are often heavily hunted, resulting in reduced seed movement for many species and a shift in community composition to favor those plants dispersed by small animals and abiotic means. Timber species with large seeds and fleshy fruit are at particular risk for dispersal and recruitment failure. Hunting also alters granivore communities, resulting in increased predation on species favored by insects and small rodents, and changing the spatial template of seed predation, with detrimental effects on many timber species. Large vertebrate herbivores decline with hunting pressure, resulting in the modification of plant competitive interactions. This is disadvantageous to several traits that are common among timber trees, including relatively slow growth and high wood density...

... at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia... Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation... Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. ... Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

...Deer (Cervidae) cause considerable damage to forest plantations, crops, and protected habitats. The most common response to this damage is to implement strategies to lower population densities ... On the landscape scale, damage level was negatively related to availability of forage in the field and shrub layers and proportion forest, but was not related to any of the relative deer density indices. Increasing alternative forage may thus decrease damage and thereby reduce conflicts. Additionally, the proportion of forest in the landscape affects damage levels and should thus be considered in landscape planning and when forecasting damage risk...

Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer  JF Lemaître, JM Gaillard, JM Pemberton… - Proceedings of the Royal …, 2014
... The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence... Males that carried antlers with more points during early life did not show more pronounced declines in reproductive traits in later life ...

Capture myopathy in a corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus (Ungulata: Cervidae)  S Nuvoli, GP Burrai, F Secci, N Columbano… - Italian Journal of Zoology, 2014
... The present study focused on the importance of translocation as stressful event in an endangered cervid species causing fatal consequences during capture operations. Fourteen free-ranging Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) have been captured for restocking ... Sixteen hours after the release, a pregnant hind was found dead and a complete necropsy was performed. Post-capture blood samples showed increased levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cortisol and potassium and were highly indicative of stress-linked muscle damage...

C Li, H Zhao, Z Liu, C McMahon - The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell …, 2014
... Deer antler is the only mammalian organ that can fully grow back once lost from its pedicle – the base from which it grows. Therefore, antlers probably offer the most pertinent model for studying organ regeneration in mammals ...  Taken together, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of antlers may provide a valuable insight to aid the field of regenerative medicine...

... I estimated, for the first time, the rate and pattern of the future spread of deer at a landscape scale across Britain, using a spatially explicit population model (SEPM)... The SEPM performed well in describing the observed spread of roe, red and muntjac deer in Britain between 1972 and 2007, and predicted the spread of, and overlap between, species to continue to increase in the future... 

...  The deer bone extract significantly suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mRNAs in the cartilage. The deer bone extract induced the up-regulation of COL2 and TIMP mRNAs and the down-regulation of MMP mRNAs by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs.  Deer bone extract alleviated inflammatory symptoms by altering the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine in osteoarthritic rats.

Long-term morphological changes in the skeleton of red deer (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) at its northern periphery J Rosvold, I Herfindal, R Andersen, AK Hufthammer - Journal of Mammalogy, 2014
... Using a data set on the skeletal morphology of Norwegian red deer (Artiodactyla, Cervidae: Cervus elaphus) spanning the last approximately 7,100 years, we document an inverse relationship between climatic conditions and body size. The size of Norwegian red deer, as estimated from both teeth and weight-bearing bones, was significantly larger during the warmer and wetter middle Holocene than it is today ...  Decreased body size may be a general response in wild ungulates to a more human-dominated landscape, resulting from reduced access to optimal habitats and high adult hunting mortality.

... Our results indicated that a connected nature reserve network is needed to protect wild ungulates in China....

Reproduction of caucasian red deer in Azerbaijan [PDF] SM Guliyev - Annals of Biological Research, 2014
... The paper contains information about reproductive features of Caucasian noble deer in Azerbaijan. Results of observations conducted in Greater and Lesser Caucasus natural regions in 1986-2012 are analyzed in comparative aspect. The differences in stages of reproductive processes depending on habitats were revealed...

BS Cohen, DA Osborn, GR Gallagher, RJ Warren… - Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2014
...  We compared intensity thresholds at the short and long wavelengths of their purported visual spectrum. Utilizing an automated training device, we trained deer to discriminate between lit and unlit light-emitting diode (LED) lights ... We confirm that these cone photoreceptors contribute to deer behavior, and that deer have a greater perceptual sensitivity to shorter wavelengths and lower sensitivity to longer wavelengths. Our findings also suggest the deer have some sensitivity to ultraviolet light...

JM O'Reilly-Wapstra, BD Moore, M Brewer, J Beaton… - … Ecology and Management, 2014
... we examine the genetic basis of recovery of Scots pine saplings following browsing by red deer ...  These data, matched with our finding of no negative relationships between any recovery traits, indicate that Scots pine is quite robust to once-off browsing events by deer. We suggest that at the sapling stage, Scots pine do not employ resistance as a strategy against deer, but tolerate deer browsing to counteract the negative impacts of herbivory. Hence, the use of recovery traits as a management tool to mitigate the negative impacts of browsing is an option worthy of further investigation.

... We have found that the main land use of the area where red deer are being raised, the type of hunting holder, and the long-term management strategies (such as fencing and the hunting practices implemented) significantly explain red deer hunting bag, which is often used as proxy of population abundance. Therefore, ecological variables alone are not always sufficient to determine big game harvests...

... First-born male deer that have relatively high levels of the male hormone testosterone are less likely to survive their first year compared with their peers, the research shows... Male deer born in the years after an older brother had lower testosterone levels than other calves...

Reliable Discrimination of 10 Ungulate Species Using High Resolution Melting Analysis of Faecal DNA [HTML] A Ramón-Laca, D Gleeson, I Yockney, M Perry… - PLOS ONE, 2014
     Identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Faecal DNA is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species...  Our HRM method enables high-throughput and cost-effective species identification from low DNA template samples, and could readily be adapted to discriminate other mammalian species from faecal DNA.

Reversible Immobilization of Free-ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) with Xylazine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole  C Sente, EL Meisingset, AL Evans, SJ Wedul… - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014
... Forty-eight free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were immobilized with xylazine (X) and tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) by dart injection during winter 2008 in Norway...  Time to standing/walking in calves and adults was 12±7 min and 12±11 min, respectively. Two capture mortalities occurred.

Effects of Capture-Related Injury on Postcapture Movement of White-Tailed Deer AC Dechen Quinn, DM Williams, WF Porter… - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014
... We captured and global positioning system–collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006–2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%)...  These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals...

J Torres-Porras, J Carranza, J Pérez-González… - European Journal of Wildlife …, 2014
Hunting can influence population structure with consequences in ecological and evolutionary processes. Populations of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Spain occur under two different management regimes:.. There is published evidence for undesirable effects of biased population sex ratio and age structure in these red deer populations. Our results indicate that this type of management may be unsustainable and recommend that harvest on males in open estates should be reduced and that on females increased, in order to maintain a more balanced population structure that may allow sustainable population dynamics and the operation of natural evolutionary processes.

K Lone, LE Loe, T Gobakken, JDC Linnell, J Odden… - Oikos, 2014
... Norway ... we investigated how predation risk was related to terrain attributes and vegetation classes/structure. As predicted, we found that increasing cover resulted in a contrasting lower predation risk from humans and higher predation risk from lynx. Greater terrain ruggedness increased the predation risk from both predators. Hence, multiple predators may create areas of contrasting risk as well as double risk in the same landscape...

An assessment of Zoonotic and Production Limiting Pathogens in Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius F Jori, J Godfroid, AL Michel, AD Potts, MR Jaumally… - Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2013
A population of approximately 70 000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius ... . The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population.

C Li, X Ping, X Lu, W Liu, H Zhu - J Biodivers Endanger Species, 2013
     South China sika deer (Cervus nippon kopschi) is a critically endangered cervid subspecies. To learn the current status of the largest population of south China sika deer in Taohongling Nature Reserve, we monitored the changes of population size from 1980 to 2011. Our survey indicated that deer population size in the core area of the reserve increased from 90 in 1983 to 312 in 1998, then decreased to 160 in 2005, and again increased to 275 in 2007 and 365 in 2011... . To provide better environment for wild sika deer, we suggest that: some measures such as prescribed burning and slash logging should be taken for restraining the arboreal succession in the reserve; deer farms of Cervus nippon hortulorum around the reserve should be reduced or removed; appropriate human activity such as restricted firewood collection might be allowed in the reserve.

... Prior to flooding, the marsh deer was distributed widely throughout the dam's catchment area; however, the marsh deer habitat was almost completely destroyed by the flooding process. This situation highlights the need to implement management strategies that ensure the survival of the remaining fragmented population...

Genetic shifts in the transition from wild to farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population PM Hernández-Mendoza, GM Parra-Bracamonte… - … Services & Management, 2013
... The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is one of the most important species related to sport hunting in northern Mexico. During the last decade, this species has been subjected to intensive breeding to achieve improvements in certain desired traits (i.e., antlers). This alleged intensive management of bringing originally wild populations into captivity might have harmful consequences on genetic diversity. In this short research paper we estimate and discuss the consequences of that transition, as assessed by a microsatellite genetic marker analysis. The results show that no short-term changes in genetic diversity parameters were promoted by captivity; however, a genetic diversity condition maintained by artificial genetic flow was identified, perhaps allowing for the required introgression of gene diversity into this closed population.

Optimal harvesting of an age-structured, two-sex herbivore–plant system O Tahvonen, J Kumpula, AJ Pekkarinen - Ecological Modelling, 2014
... This study presents an optimal harvesting model for the semi-domesticated reindeer ...  Density dependence at optimal equilibrium is realized in calf weight and in the average number of calves per female. Optimal slaughtering is concentrated on six-month-old calves. Adult females are slaughtered at the age of 9.5 years and males at the age of 5.5 years. A moderate or high interest rate increases the steady state reindeer population but decreases pasture conditions. Dynamic solutions deviate from constant escapement, implying that the optimal recovery from initially overgrazed pastures is slower than suggested in existing studies and actual policy. The shadow value for males is three times higher than for females...










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Sep 8, 2015, 8:20 AM