International Deer News
Cameras capture rare glimpse of roe deer in western Georgia [video below] August 12, 2015 Agenda.ge
... Wildlife experts are celebrating after cameras caught rare footage of a roe deer in Georgia’s Adjara region...

... tea plantations in Assam would soon be converted into wildlife havens  ... "Large mammals cannot be excluded from the tea gardens. It is part of their natural habitat. With their natural habitat depleting rapidly, more and more such animals have been taking shelter in the tea estates ... You will also find many types of deer... 

The Chinese milu, also known as Pere David's deer, were extinct in their homeland after starving peasants ate the last one. But incredibly, some survived abroad. Today in China, a growing population of wild milu have become a headache for farmers - July 17, 2015



...  The mass extinction at the end of the last Ice Age led to the disappearance of many animal species including the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros, cave bears and the Megaloceros, also known as the giant deer or Irish elk ...  still present in parts of north-western Europe after the Ice Age, before they finally disappeared about 7,000 years ago...

... Over the course of just a few weeks, as many as 120,000 saiga antelopes have fallen prey to the mystery disease. Half of these endangered animals have already succumbed to the illness — with no end in sight... death by extreme diarrhea and difficulty breathing ...

Venison prices down, deer velvet up May 29, 2015 New Zealand, Radio New Zealand
... the biggest challenge facing the industry was subdued venison prices, and maintaining farmer confidence... increasing prices for deer velvet was one of the factors driving increased confidence in the industry ...

State forest department plans deer breeding centre in Dangs May 12, 2015 India, The Indian Express
... The state forest department is coming up with a breeding centre for barking and spotted deer in Purna century near Bardipada village in North Dangs forest region... Work like fencing the area, creating drinking water facilities and raised platforms has already been started...

Barking deer caught May 12, 2015 India, E-Pao
...  A barking deer was rescued by a group of animal lovers and personnel of Kumbi Police at Terakhong of Kumbi under Bishnupur district ...

... Fifteen milus, or Pere David's deer, have recently been found dead from unknown causes in a nature reserve in north China's Hebei Province.  Fifteen out of the 20 milu deer in the Luanhe Upper River National Nature Reserve have died since last August ...

Kaziranga has over 1000 eastern swamp deer May 5, 2015 India, Times of India 
...  The Kaziranga National Park ... has recorded an increase in eastern swamp deer population as per the latest survey conducted by the forest department ... the latest census estimated 1,129 eastern swamp deer ...

Locals play saviour for injured spotted deer May 4, 2015 India, freepressjournal.in
... After spotting the full grown female deer trapped in a swamp near the Mandvipada area of Kashimira, locals informed corporator Anil Bhosale who in turn alerted the fire brigade ...

... The Keibul Lamjao, the only floating national park in the world, is home to the last of the brow-antlered deer (Rucervus eldii eldii), one of the most endangered deer in the world. It’s not certain how many survive in the 40 sq. km KLNP. A head count in April last year put the number at 204 ...



Forest officials favour relocation of Nara depot deer April 12, 2015 India, Times of India
...  Experts who visited the spot say keeping so many deer confined there is sentencing them to death...They seem to agree that relocating the deer from the place is best option...

Komi Decries Largest Killing of Reindeer in Decade April 7, 2015 Russia, The Moscow Times
... The remains of about 30 reindeer ... Hunting caribou has been outlawed in the Komi republic since 2000 after the number of wild reindeer fell to a critical level ...

A deer was 'fished' from the Adriatic Sea by fisherman close to the Italian port of Giulianova, Saturday. Onlookers filmed the deer as it was brought ashore. - April 6, 2015 Italy



   The New Zealand deer industry is today signing an agreement with one of Korea’s largest health food manufacturers, the Korea Ginseng Corporation (KGC), to help it develop more products containing NZ velvet antler. The non-binding memorandum ...

Shrinking Water Resources, Withering Pastures Put Wildlife to Risk March 19, 2015 India, The New Indian Express 
... in coastal Andhra ... With no rain for months ... Deer, sambar and wild boars are straying into human habitations in search of food and water ...

  In order to restore the ecology of Kinnersani Sanctuary, a total of 26 deer had been shifted from three different deer parks to the eco-restoration project site and are being released into the wild in a phased manner …

... The report recommends a series of actions on deer management and conservation in a number of areas including reviewing regulatory and administrative frameworks ... You can access the ‘Deer Management in Ireland – A Framework for Action’ report here:

Blackbucks on the rise in Ganjam: Census March 3, 2015 India, The Hindu
... Ganjam district is the preferred habitat of endangered blackbucks in Odisha. Villagers of Ganjam district due to their traditional religious belief consider blackbucks as incarnations of Lord Vishnu and harbingers of rain...

... Horrified ramblers in the Castile and Leon region of central Spain stumbled upon the macabre sight during an afternoon stroll... Police have launched a hunt ..

Depleting Habitat Clouds Future of Blackbucks February 3, 2015 India, The New Indian Express
... Dwindling habitats of the Blackbucks in Ganjam’s Aska block pose serious concern for the endangered species.  Despite recording a healthy rise in their population, the Blackbucks are fast losing their habitats to rapid urbanisation...

10 endangered animals in India that you should see before they vanish! January 19, 2015 travel.india.com
... The Kashmir stag also known as Hangul is a critically endangered species. This deer has a light rump patch without including the tail. Each of its antlers consists of 5 tines.  Can be spotted at: Dachigam National Park ...

... Madhya Pradesh forest department is retrying to translocate rare Swamp deer and find its second home. Earlier it had tried to translocate this deer species to Bandhavgarh, but it didn't work.  Swamp deer is the state animal and it is found only at KTR ...

...  in Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, where the wild deer were wiped out in the early 20th century ... 28 animals — have successfully adapted to the natural habitat ...

19 swamp deer translocated from Kaziranga to Manas December 28, 2014 India, Times of India 
... Nineteen swamp deer have been translocated for the first time in the country from Kaziranga National Park to Manas National Park in Assam... travelled more than 400 kms ... we have shown to the world a successful mass capture of Eastern Swamp Deer for the first time in the country...

Deer vaccine may prevent brain disorder in humans December 22, 2014 The Indian Express
... The study marks a scientific milestone as it is the successful vaccination of deer against chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal brain disorder caused by unusual infectious proteins known as prions that propagate by converting otherwise healthy proteins into a disease state...

Deer repellent is sometimes applied to 1080 poison baits in aerial poison drops across New Zealand Forests and streams. The blood-based solution is applied to the deadly cereal food baits to deter deer from eating them... December 13, 2014



15 swamp deer are here, safe and sound December 1, 2014 India, The Hindu 
... Transportation of swamp deer is considered one of the riskiest animal exchange operations between zoos... 5 swamp deer arrived by road from Lucknow ... Though one deer succumbed to stress shortly after being loaded onto the vehicle on October 24, the mission is being considered a success...

Foresters relocate 140 deer from Chennai streets to zoo November 30, 2014 India, Times of India
... The department has already relocated around 140 spotted deer have been trapped in cages in the last four months in various locations ... relocate the animals to prevent them from dying in road accidents, contracting infectious diseases or falling prey to poachers and facing attacks by street dogs. ..

Strange, fanged deer persists in Afghanistan October 31, 2014 Science Codex 
... More than 60 years after its last confirmed sighting, a strange deer with vampire-like fangs still persists in the rugged forested slopes of northeast Afghanistan according to a research team led by the Wildlife Conservation Society ...

... Genetic gains in New Zealand's farmed deer show no sign of levelling off despite tremendous advancements in antler and animal size in the last 30 years, says renowned stud breeder Clive Jermy...

... The Langenberg Wildlife Park near Zurich admits it does not have sufficient space for all its wild boar and deer, so the surplus exhibits are being served up at the visitors' restaurant.  Just metres from where the animals once frolicked in fields ...

Did Byculla Zoo make guinea pigs of tigers and deer? October 15, 2014 India, Daily News and Analysis 
... A Kharghar-based wildlife trust has complained to the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) about veterinary students carrying out a research on two Royal Bengal tigers and 12 deer from the Veermata Jijabai Bhonsle Udyan (VJBU) Zoo that involved the animals undergoing 'clinical trials' to see how they react to anaesthesia...

... Damages in the forest stands are permanently present because man with its management practice changed and imposed living conditions for deer game. Occurrence and intensity of damages by red deer did not increase, but slightly declined for 0.4% in last twenty four years. Regulations in the hunting ground and proper management by creating surface convenient for pasture, sufficient and quality food and feeding sources, facilitate setting up a balance between forest management and size of red deer population in the hunting ground...

Contamination of Roe Deer Forage in a Polluted Forest of Southern Poland  October 7, 2014 Krystyna Grodzifiska ... els-cdn.com
... During the approximately 110-day period of antler development, roe deer bucks in this forest ingested about 196 g of heavy metals ...  A sharp decline in the quality of roe deer antlers has been found in the Niepołomice Forest during the last 25 years, from the beginning of the operation of the steel mill. This decline may be the result of winter food contamination by the mill's emissions...

... Unexpectedly high levels of radioactivity have been found in Norway’s reindeer this autumn – almost 30 years after a radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere of the country following the Chernobyl tragedy ...

...  the population has risen due to plantation and sufficient water in the waterholes. The officials said they have also installed the first solar panel in the district, which is used to fill the waterholes from a 180-feet deep bore well...  "If the animals have enough area to graze, they don't go to the farms. We have done plantation in 30 hectares of land. We also have natural jungles here." ...

Fears for deer after 1080 drop September 19 2014 New Zealand, New Zealand Herald
... Despite lobbying from deerstalkers to use deer-repellent bait, the department said it could not afford modified pellets. The aerial 1080 dump beyond Glenorchy at the head of Lake Wakatipu was completed on August 30...

1080 Poison Deer Repellent not Effective - Deadly September 1, 2014 New Zealand, Scoop 
...Four deer have been found dead within a farmer's bush block, after an aerial 1080 poison drop applied with deer repellent... the deer still ate the repellent-applied poisoned baits, despite there being ample feed on the farm boundary ...

... 8,000 red deer that live on the military training site. “Grafenwoehr is home to one of the largest red deer populations in all of Germany,”  ... the lack of public access and its diverse landscape means that it has become an ideal habitat for wildlife ...

... An unknown assailant has shot and killed a rare yellow deer being kept in the Khoramabad Zoo... This is the second time in recent months that a deer in a protected area has been killed ...

Red deer filmed at nature reserve 'Het Aardhuis' located near Apeldoorn in The Netherlands. This nature reserve is an excellent spot to connect with the Dutch wildlife. You can get extremely close the game bringing good opportunities to take photographs or shoot film. In the early afternoon the deer come to the feeding location in front of the outlook. Usually they stay for a while giving you enough time to capture this magnificent animal. Check out their website for visiting times: http://www.aardhuis.nl/ - August 26, 2014


Farmed deer numbers drop according to new research August 25, 2014 Australia, Weekly Times Now
... Research found the deer industry had a significant reduction in producer numbers over the past 10 years, with a lack of processing and supply chain issues possible reasons for the decline...

Tata zoo role in rare deer survival August 19, 2014 India, The Telegraph
...  Père David’s deer, or Elaphurus davidianus, is a species found only in captivity, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature. About 1,400 deer are alive at a handful of breeding parks around the world.  The deer, distinguished by their branched antlers and a long tail, have a liking for aquatic plants...

... Officials in Umbria have drawn up plans to allow the hunting of wild deer with bows and arrows, causing an outcry among critics who say it will return the Italian region to the Dark Ages ...

... The Siberian musk deer ... Area of habitation: from the eastern Himalayas and Tibet to eastern Siberia, Korea and Sakhalin, the Amur Region and the Primorsky Territory. Approximate size of population: 120,000 -125,000 (in Russia) Instead of horns, the deer has twisted fangs protruding from below its upper lip... 

... they were killed in a war during the reign of the Tongzhi emperor in the Qing Dynasty. Those that survived were the ones that Duke of Bedford kept in his garden... Currently the park has around 200 deer. Others have been introduced to the wild, and there are now over 1,000 Pere David's deer in the wild in China...

... The Tyrolean Iceman lived between 5,300 years ago and 5,100 years ago... The clothing of the Tyrolean Iceman came from deer that originated in Western Europe. The present red deer population in the Italian Alps is derived from the eastern genetic lineage. The researchers propose that glacial movement and weather patterns promoted the change in red deer populations in the Italian Alps that was concurrent with the movement of humans...

... there are only about 1,500 Eld’s deer left in the wild, with the majority of them in the 279-square kilometre Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary in Sagaing’s Kanbalu Township.
Efforts to protect the area, however, have been hampered by illegal logging, residents of the area say...

Otago connection to the world's most expensive socks June 15, 2014 New Zealand, Otago Daily Times
... The soft down hair of New Zealand red deer is being used to make the world's most expensive socks, costing a staggering $1600 a pair... Harrys claim it is lighter and softer than cashmere, as well as being resilient to creasing...

IIT-Madras campus plans deer corridor June 15, 2014 India, Deccan Chronicle
...  Showing concern for the blackbuck population on its campus, which has increased from 13 in 2007 to 34 this year and other deer roaming its grounds, the institute has decided to create deer corridors with adequate space between buildings to allow the animals free movement...

...  so far most of the dozens of projects underway on the Continent are centered on the less radical notion of reintroducing large grazing animals that once roamed unfettered in much of Europe — wild horses, European bison, red deer, ibex — and letting bears, wolves and lynx keep them in check...

... Patricio Rodrigo, executive secretary of the Patagonia Defence Council, called the decision "the greatest triumph of the environmental movement in Chile"... The habitat of the endangered Southern Huemul deer was also seen to be under threat. Fewer than 1,000 of the diminutive animals, a national symbol, are believed to exist...

Sambar deer facing extinction in peninsula, says study June 5, 2014 Malaysia, The Star Online
...  the sambar (Rusa unicolor) is facing habitat loss from development and deforestation as well as constant poaching...

Eastern Swamp Deer census begins in Kaziranga May 8, 2014 India, Zee News 
... The eastern swamp deer, is one of the three endangered deer species existing in the world, and is found only in Kaziranga.  According to the census of December 2013, 836 swamp deers were found in the Park...

... "This boost is created by using known superior male and female genetics and the multiplication of greater numbers of offspring than natural mating. ... we are producing animals with high growth rates..."

... ‘Rhino horn and deer musk can be more valuable than gold or cocaine.’ ... The change adopted by the Standing Committee redefines what it means to purchase endangered species, making it illegal for anyone to knowingly buy or consume animals that were poached...

... In a pilot phase, five small drones -- fitted with combined digital and infrared sensors that can detect colour patterns and body heat -- have been trialed in the southern state of Bavaria to find the animals... 

... The average life expectancy for deer is 15 years and none living now would have encountered the barrier... "But the border still plays a role for them and separates the two populations,"  ... 

...  Now, a new study released today in PLOS Biology makes the case that even one of the most robust animal populations around — the roe deer of France — are having trouble keeping up with the pace of changing temperatures.... Using population data spanning the last 30 years, researchers demonstrated that roe deer in the Champagne region of France have not been able to adjust their birthing season ...

... A pair of Roosevelt's Muntjacs, also known as  Roosevelt's barking deer, was caught on a camera trap set up by scientists surveying barking deer populations at the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve ...

25 years after Iron Curtain fell, deer stay on respective sides February 24, 2014 Czech Republic, United Press International 
... after the fall of the Iron Curtain ... the behavior of deer was very traditional and they were probably very conservative, and are repeating movements probably based on respect for a border that is no longer there ...

Fluorescent Deer Antlers: Do They Work? February 20, 2014 Finland, WebProNews ·
... Hitting a deer can be an awful experience ... attempts to make reindeer more visible on roadways ... painted the antlers of 20 reindeer with various fluorescent dyes. The group will monitor the deer for several weeks to determine which dyes are the easiest to see and how they hold up to the Arctic cold...

... The program on restoration of the Caucasian red deer population in Armenia is entering its crucial phase. Head of WWF Armenia Karen Manvelyan has told ArmInfo that the talks on acquisition of the Caucasian red deer are already underway...

Hangul deer prepares to fight Kashmir winter January 7, 2014 India, The Hindu
... The endangered ‘Hangul,’ a rare species of red deer, is preparing to fight the bone chilling winter in the snow-laden Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary located on the outskirts of Srinagar. Forest rangers said they have made special food arrangements to keep the antlered stag in good health....

Milk and cheese, deer?  January 2, 2014 New Zealand, ABC Online
... A New Zealand farmer and a cheese-maker have joined forces to craft what they hope will be the world's first commercially produced cheese using deer milk.  Scientists say deer milk is rich in nutrients and protein and could also have wide-ranging therapeutic and cosmetic uses ...




DeerLab.org:  specializes in wildlife management and conservation throughout Patagonia.  Over 100 publications that can be downloaded.  Includes study of Patagonian huemul, an endangered deer of the southern Andes whose recovery has yet to be secured. Little is known about its biology and ecology, and the few remaining populations, located in remote areas, present a challenge to study.

Deer Research

... Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. ..

... Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an east-west gradient. The results suggest at least three distinct management units of roe deer in continental Asia, although genetic admixture is evident in some border areas. The insights obtained from this study shed light on management of Siberian roe deer in Asia and may be applied in conservation of local populations of Siberian roe deer...

Density, occupancy, and activity pattern of two sympatric deer (Mazama) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil  ÁC Ferreguetti, WM Tomás, HG Bergallo - Journal of Mammalogy, 2015
... The red brocket (Mazama americana) and gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) are sympatric in the Atlantic Forest and present a number of ecological similarities in their diet and habitat use ... We conclude that, despite the abundance of these sympatric species, and their occupation of the same habitats, they may avoid competing for habitat and feeding resources through differences in their activity patterns...

Developing genomic tools in the New Zealand Deer Industry SJ Rowe, SM Clarke, TC Van Stijn, DL Hyndman… - Proceedings of the New …, 2015
... The New Zealand deer industry currently uses genomic technology via microsatellite markers to assign parentage and breed. In many other species, microsatellites have been superseded by SNP markers, which are more abundant in the genome and technically easier to use. SNP assays or ‘chips’ that record thousands to hundreds of thousands of markers have now been developed in many species including humans, pigs and cattle... 

Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer  FJ Pérez-Barbería, J Carranza, C Sánchez-Prieto - PLOS ONE, 2015
... These results illustrate how independent selection in both subspecies, that diverged 11,700 years BP, has resulted in the evolution of different longevity, although sexual selection has maintained a similar pattern of relative sex differences in tooth depletion. This study opens interesting questions on optimal allocation in life history trade-offs and the independent evolution of allopatric populations...

Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)  S Uccheddu, G Body, RB Weladji, Ø Holand… - Oecologia, 2015
... Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level... these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6–7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males.

A simple and effective method for obtaining mammal DNA from faeces  A Ramón-Laca, L Soriano, D Gleeson, JA Godoy - Wildlife Biology, 2015
... Results from these comparisons show that swabbing the samples in situ not only simplifies field collection and sample handling in the laboratory, but generally optimises target DNA recovery, minimises co-purification of PCR inhibitors and provides good quality DNA for the species tested, especially for herbivores. This method is also less time-consuming and more cost-effective ...

Stabilization Points in Carrying Capacity: Population Growth and Migrations [This link will download a PDF] A Diachenko, EBW Zubrow - Journal of Neolithic Archaeology, 2015
... Using simulations based upon well-known mathematical approaches in theoretical ecology, one calculates carrying capacity out of the trends in a demographic development. It is an alternative to most approaches in archaeology and anthropology concerning potential
resources and the cost of labor. Finally, this approach is also useful for the analysis of migrations and site catchments...

...The alpine musk deer, Moschus chrysogaster, a small member of family Moschidae, is a primitive deer threatened due to poaching and habitat loss, and therefore classified ...  The most preferred plant species of the animals were found to be Gaultheria trichophylla, Ophiopogon intermedius., Cyperus sp. and Sibbaldia cuneata. During the field survey, opportunistic sightings of the species were also recorded. The species was found to be restricted to areas where the density of preferred vegetation was high. Therefore, it is recommended to provide strict protection to the areas such as Shokhark...

...  the percentage or frequency of browsed twigs and seedlings is a useful index of the impact of deer on forests, differences in the browse preferences of deer among tree species should also be considered... The tract coefficients are considered to be an index of deer impact levels and can be estimated from the percentage of browsed seedlings for a species if the species coefficient is given. Simple percentages of browsed seedlings can also be used as an index of impact level, regardless of browse preferences, though these may be inaccurate, especially when the site is dominated by significantly preferred or avoided species...

... In this study, we compare the results of roe deer sampling based on distance detection performed by two techniques: surveys on foot in the evening and nocturnal surveys by car... when it is necessary to estimate absolute densities of roe deer populations, nocturnal distance sampling by car seems to be the most appropriate method due to its low cost, yet the influence of the vehicle on the distribution of roe deer and, therefore, on the estimated density, must be taken into account when carrying out such studies.

... The results show that: using the MCP method, the average home range size of Chinese water deer was estimated to be 671 ha (range 245-1559 ha), while using the 95% FKE method, the average was estimated to be 262 ha (range 43-435 ha). The average home range size of a buck was smaller than that of a doe by both MCP and FKE. The average home range size of an adult female was smaller than that of a sub-adult female. The largest seasonal home range size (MCP, 275 ha) occurred during the first year’s winter, which then kept shrinking in spring and summer. Home range overlap was found among each individual’s home range...

Effectiveness of an acoustic wildlife warning device using natural calls to reduce the risk of train collisions with animals J Babińska-Werka, D Krauze-Gryz, M Wasilewski… - … Research Part D: Transport …, 2015
... The subject of study was the effectiveness of the UOZ-1 device – which emits the natural warning calls of animals – in protecting animals living near railway tracks... With sound signals emitted, animals escaped more often (84% vs. 68%), and their reaction to an oncoming train was 20 s faster. We found no proof that animals habituated to the warning signals ...

... The Alpine musk deer Moschus chrysogaster, a small member of family Moschidae is a primitive deer threatened due to poaching and habitat loss ... the species is legally protected in India ... The study shows that the musk deer is predominantly a browser. The most preferred plant species of the animal were found to be Gaultheria trichophylla, Ophiopogon intermedius...

... This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer ...  it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase
concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth.
... This study represents the first analysis of livestock influence over individual mammal species in NW Argentina forests. Through camera-trapping, I found a negative correlation between frequencies of occurrence of livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) and Gray brocket deer Mazama goauzoubira, and a modification of the daily activities patterns of the latter according to changes in density of the former. ...

M Hoffmann, JW Duckworth, K Holmes, DP Mallon… - Conservation Biology, 2015
... We estimated that without conservation at least 148 species would have deteriorated by one International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List category, including 6 species that now would be listed as extinct or extinct in the wild. The overall decline in the conservation status of ungulates would have been nearly 8 times worse than observed. This trend would have been greater still if not for conservation on private lands....

... Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers...

Population Density of the Endangered Forest Musk Deer, Moschus berezovskii, in China [PDF] G Yao, BB Wang, Y Zhu, QH Wan, SG Fang - Pakistan J. Zool, 2015
...  Our results suggested the indices of abundance varies according to the geographical variation, which may attribute to the economic imbalance between eastern part and western in China. In addition, many human disturbances were present in the habitat of Chinese forest musk deer. Extensive poaching was currently being practiced, as revealed by our field observation of 0.14 snares/km2.  In addition, the population trend in Mayuhe and Yele seemed to be decreasing...

...  this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics...

...  known as the Irish Elk, a massive creature that stood 7ft (2 meters) tall and had antlers up to 10ft (up to 3.5 meters) wide, all but died out at around the time of the end of last Ice Age about 10,300 years ago.  ...  in the highly-ranked scientific journal, Quaternary Science Reviews, the experts have extended the early Holocene habitat of the animal at least 2,400km to the east...

... a common feature of both valuation and cost studies is the exclusion of several costs and benefits items and of indirect effects in the economies, which can be considerable for economies with high reliance on tourism and agriculture sectors. With respect to policy choice, the literature suggests economic incentives for conflict resolutions, where the winners from wildlife compensate the losses, but studies evaluating such policies in practice are lacking...

... we provide an integrative multi-scale study of roe deer spatial responses to variable hunting pressure along a landscape gradient of open habitats and dispersed refuges ... We found that when risk was high, roe deer did not shift their home-range, but generally decreased their use of risky habitats, and sometimes reduced their distance to cover (particularly older animals). There was a functional response in between-habitat selection, with animals living in more open landscapes responding more than those living in landscapes with more refuges. However, individuals living in more open landscapes avoided open risky habitat less ...

... The Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) suffered a striking collapse of its populations during the first half of the 20th century due to excessive hunting. In Andalusia, southern Spain, re-colonization took place from a few relict populations through natural dispersal, and through artificial reintroductions for big-game hunting ... We suggest that new herds should be established using individuals from the different genetic clusters, and a careful monitoring of the breeder's genetic background to prevent further inbreeding and inadvertent hybridization...

... We recognized three historical phases and one sub-phase of demographic reduction and collapse: “Aristocratic hunting” phase (15th Century), “Fire weapons and people hunting” phase (from 16th to 18th Century), “Habitat collapse” phase (19th and 20th Century), with a sub-phase of “genetic introgression” beginning in the 1940s...

Z Liu, J Wang, Y Sun, Z Hou, L Teng - Mitochondrial DNA, 2015
... he complete mitochondrial genome of a wild red deer from Helan Mountain, China was sequenced and annotated newly. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,428 bp, with a base composition of 33.3% A, 28.8% T, 24.4% C and 13.5% G, and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region...

... during hunting, when food was also scarce, both sexes selected home ranges with high proportions of the habitats perceived as safe, in which they performed all their activities. This result suggested that risk avoidance exceeded all the other individual and environmental factors in the hierarchy of the determinants of habitat selection during the hunting period...

High Juvenile Mortality Is Associated with Sex-Specific Adult Survival and Lifespan in Wild Roe Deer  M Garratt, JF Lemaître, M Douhard, C Bonenfant… - Current Biology, 2015
... We show that sex differences in adult survival and lifespan in cohorts of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) range from virtually absent in some years to females living 30% longer than males in others. The extent of this sex difference in adult longevity is strongly linked to the level of mortality each cohort experiences as juveniles, with high juvenile mortality generating a strong sex difference in both adult survival and lifespan. In females, high juvenile mortality leads to increased adult survival for those remaining individuals, whereas in males survival is actually reduced...

J Duarte, MA Farfán, JE Fa, JM Vargas - European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2015
...  We found a significant increase in the density of both these deer species in the area following the rezoning, probably due to the creation of more favourable habitat for deer and the cessation of hunting activity. Deer preferred the urbanised areas and especially the golf courses...

Do relatives like to stay closer? Spatial organization and genetic relatedness in a mountain roe deer population D Biosa, S Grignolio, N Sica, N Pagon, M Scandura… - Journal of Zoology, 2015
...  We found that genetic relatedness tended to increase with home range proximity, but mostly in winter. Nevertheless, when the extent of overlap between seasonal home ranges with respect to genetic relatedness was considered, males and females seemed to preferably share their home range with relatives of the same sex, reducing the overlap with relatives of the opposite sex during the rutting period. We conclude that home range rearrangements during the breeding season may afford a certain level of spatial segregation between closely related potential mates, thus reducing inbreeding risk.

RV Nichols, JPGM Cromsigt, G Spong - Oecologia, 2014
... Although the deer species differed in mean browsing height, species were comparable in terms of their minimum browsing height of ~20 cm. This means that height and diameter ranges of the smaller species were found to be completely inside the ranges of the larger species. Hence, while moose may access exclusive food resources in terms of browse height and diameter, red and roe deer cannot.

... Airborne laser scanning (ALS) can give direct and detailed measurements of vegetation structure. We assessed the effectiveness of ALS data to predict (1) the distribution of browse forage resources and (2) moose (Alces alces) habitat selection in southern Norway.... The auxiliary information on vegetation structure from ALS improved the prediction of browse moderately, but greatly improved the analysis of habitat selection, as it captured important functional gradients in the habitat apart from forage. We conclude that ALS is an effective and valuable tool for wildlife managers and ecologists to estimate the distribution of large herbivores...

Multiple pathways mediate the effects of climate change on maternal reproductive traits in a red deer population KV Stopher, AI Bento, TH Clutton-Brock, JM Pemberton… - Ecology, 2014 United Kingdom
... In general, warmer temperatures were associated with earlier birth dates and greater birth mass, and higher rainfall was associated with reduced juvenile survival and reduced female fecundity. We also examined concurrent effects of population density, maternal age, and reproductive history, and found that temporal stasis in average trait values, at least in part, could be explained by antagonistic roles of direct and indirect effects of changing climate and increasing population density...

... This study found that red deer show significantly different dietary intake due to sex; with females consuming a diet much higher in grasses, while males consume more trees and shrubs...

YS Huo, H Huo, J Zhang - Chinese journal of integrative medicine, 2014
... Deer velvet antler is the only mammal organ which can continuous regenerate... The international antler research has entered the stage of molecular biology, and will no doubt have a profound impact on the modern biomedical fields, such as regenerative medicine, organ degeneration and dysplasia, trauma medicine and anti-inflammatory treatment, growth factor research, as well as creation of new medical thinking...

Gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated Norwegian population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) [PDF] RK Davidson, SJ Kutz, K Madslien, E Hoberg… - Acta Veterinaria …, 2014
... This isolated population was parasitised by a reduced subset of gastrointestinal nematodes typical of this cervid across an extensive geographic range in Eurasia. The intensity and abundance of abomasal nematodes was higher in this isolated population than reported in similar studies of red deer populations across Europe...

Using zero-inlated models to predict the relative distribution and abundance of roe deer over very large spatial scales  Y Bouyer, T Rigot, M Panzacchi, B Van Moorter… - Annales Zoologici Fennici, 2015
... In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution and abundance. However, the massive spatial scales at which large carnivores use the landscape presents many practical and statistical challenges for developing functional prey distribution models... The map generated can facilitate both the study of broad scale processes linking predators and prey as well as roe deer management in southeastern Norway.

Population control based on abundance estimates: Frequency does not compensate for uncertainty  R Hagen, S Kramer-Schadt, L Fahse, M Heurich - Ecological Complexity, 2014
... we developed an age-structured population model for roe deer, one of the most common ungulates in Europe. The model simulates hunting processes that are affected by uncertainties related to abundance estimates and species demography. The results indicated that uncertainty related to abundance estimates largely reduced the ability to achieve target population densities. Surprisingly, this effect was not weakened by more frequent estimations. We conclude that decreasing the interval of abundance estimates counterintuitively cannot compensate for lacking accuracy. 

Ungulate browsing on conifers during summer as revealed by DNA RV Nichols, G Spong - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 2014
...  Across Sweden, ungulate communities comprise multiple coexisting species, making it a challenge to determine which herbivore species have caused the browsing damages... Browsed twig samples were sent to us so that we could identify the responsible browsing species using DNA. We discovered that 73.7% of the damages were actually attributable to moose with 24.7% caused by red deer and 1.5% by fallow deer...

Habitat Use of Sichuan Sika Deer in Forest, Bush and Meadows in the Tiebu Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China  C Zhao, J Hu, Y Li, J Ran, J Guan, C Yang, Y Xiong… - Pakistan J. Zool, 2014
... In forest, Sichuan sika deer preferred the sites with a high density of herbs. In bush, Sichuan sika deer’s occurrence was significantly correlated with greater distances from habitations and shorter distances to water. In meadows, Sichuan sika deer preferred the sites with gradual slopes and proximity to water. Water and disturbance could be treated as key factors that influence the habitat use of Sichuan sika deer in meadow and bush habitat. Food availability may affect the habitat use of Sichuan sika deer in forest and bush. Thus, protecting all three vegetation types is one of the important objectives for the conservation of the endangered Sichuan sika deer...

C Rosin - Forest Ecology and Management, 2014
...  Vertebrate seed dispersers are often heavily hunted, resulting in reduced seed movement for many species and a shift in community composition to favor those plants dispersed by small animals and abiotic means. Timber species with large seeds and fleshy fruit are at particular risk for dispersal and recruitment failure. Hunting also alters granivore communities, resulting in increased predation on species favored by insects and small rodents, and changing the spatial template of seed predation, with detrimental effects on many timber species. Large vertebrate herbivores decline with hunting pressure, resulting in the modification of plant competitive interactions. This is disadvantageous to several traits that are common among timber trees, including relatively slow growth and high wood density...

... at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia... Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation... Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. ... Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

...Deer (Cervidae) cause considerable damage to forest plantations, crops, and protected habitats. The most common response to this damage is to implement strategies to lower population densities ... On the landscape scale, damage level was negatively related to availability of forage in the field and shrub layers and proportion forest, but was not related to any of the relative deer density indices. Increasing alternative forage may thus decrease damage and thereby reduce conflicts. Additionally, the proportion of forest in the landscape affects damage levels and should thus be considered in landscape planning and when forecasting damage risk...

Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer  JF Lemaître, JM Gaillard, JM Pemberton… - Proceedings of the Royal …, 2014
... The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence... Males that carried antlers with more points during early life did not show more pronounced declines in reproductive traits in later life ...

Capture myopathy in a corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus (Ungulata: Cervidae)  S Nuvoli, GP Burrai, F Secci, N Columbano… - Italian Journal of Zoology, 2014
... The present study focused on the importance of translocation as stressful event in an endangered cervid species causing fatal consequences during capture operations. Fourteen free-ranging Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) have been captured for restocking ... Sixteen hours after the release, a pregnant hind was found dead and a complete necropsy was performed. Post-capture blood samples showed increased levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cortisol and potassium and were highly indicative of stress-linked muscle damage...

C Li, H Zhao, Z Liu, C McMahon - The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell …, 2014
... Deer antler is the only mammalian organ that can fully grow back once lost from its pedicle – the base from which it grows. Therefore, antlers probably offer the most pertinent model for studying organ regeneration in mammals ...  Taken together, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of antlers may provide a valuable insight to aid the field of regenerative medicine...

... I estimated, for the first time, the rate and pattern of the future spread of deer at a landscape scale across Britain, using a spatially explicit population model (SEPM)... The SEPM performed well in describing the observed spread of roe, red and muntjac deer in Britain between 1972 and 2007, and predicted the spread of, and overlap between, species to continue to increase in the future... 

...  The deer bone extract significantly suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mRNAs in the cartilage. The deer bone extract induced the up-regulation of COL2 and TIMP mRNAs and the down-regulation of MMP mRNAs by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs.  Deer bone extract alleviated inflammatory symptoms by altering the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine in osteoarthritic rats.

Long-term morphological changes in the skeleton of red deer (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) at its northern periphery J Rosvold, I Herfindal, R Andersen, AK Hufthammer - Journal of Mammalogy, 2014
... Using a data set on the skeletal morphology of Norwegian red deer (Artiodactyla, Cervidae: Cervus elaphus) spanning the last approximately 7,100 years, we document an inverse relationship between climatic conditions and body size. The size of Norwegian red deer, as estimated from both teeth and weight-bearing bones, was significantly larger during the warmer and wetter middle Holocene than it is today ...  Decreased body size may be a general response in wild ungulates to a more human-dominated landscape, resulting from reduced access to optimal habitats and high adult hunting mortality.

... Our results indicated that a connected nature reserve network is needed to protect wild ungulates in China....

Reproduction of caucasian red deer in Azerbaijan [PDF] SM Guliyev - Annals of Biological Research, 2014
... The paper contains information about reproductive features of Caucasian noble deer in Azerbaijan. Results of observations conducted in Greater and Lesser Caucasus natural regions in 1986-2012 are analyzed in comparative aspect. The differences in stages of reproductive processes depending on habitats were revealed...

BS Cohen, DA Osborn, GR Gallagher, RJ Warren… - Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2014
...  We compared intensity thresholds at the short and long wavelengths of their purported visual spectrum. Utilizing an automated training device, we trained deer to discriminate between lit and unlit light-emitting diode (LED) lights ... We confirm that these cone photoreceptors contribute to deer behavior, and that deer have a greater perceptual sensitivity to shorter wavelengths and lower sensitivity to longer wavelengths. Our findings also suggest the deer have some sensitivity to ultraviolet light...

JM O'Reilly-Wapstra, BD Moore, M Brewer, J Beaton… - … Ecology and Management, 2014
... we examine the genetic basis of recovery of Scots pine saplings following browsing by red deer ...  These data, matched with our finding of no negative relationships between any recovery traits, indicate that Scots pine is quite robust to once-off browsing events by deer. We suggest that at the sapling stage, Scots pine do not employ resistance as a strategy against deer, but tolerate deer browsing to counteract the negative impacts of herbivory. Hence, the use of recovery traits as a management tool to mitigate the negative impacts of browsing is an option worthy of further investigation.

... We have found that the main land use of the area where red deer are being raised, the type of hunting holder, and the long-term management strategies (such as fencing and the hunting practices implemented) significantly explain red deer hunting bag, which is often used as proxy of population abundance. Therefore, ecological variables alone are not always sufficient to determine big game harvests...

... First-born male deer that have relatively high levels of the male hormone testosterone are less likely to survive their first year compared with their peers, the research shows... Male deer born in the years after an older brother had lower testosterone levels than other calves...

Reliable Discrimination of 10 Ungulate Species Using High Resolution Melting Analysis of Faecal DNA [HTML] A Ramón-Laca, D Gleeson, I Yockney, M Perry… - PLOS ONE, 2014
     Identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Faecal DNA is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species...  Our HRM method enables high-throughput and cost-effective species identification from low DNA template samples, and could readily be adapted to discriminate other mammalian species from faecal DNA.

Reversible Immobilization of Free-ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) with Xylazine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole  C Sente, EL Meisingset, AL Evans, SJ Wedul… - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014
... Forty-eight free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were immobilized with xylazine (X) and tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) by dart injection during winter 2008 in Norway...  Time to standing/walking in calves and adults was 12±7 min and 12±11 min, respectively. Two capture mortalities occurred.

Effects of Capture-Related Injury on Postcapture Movement of White-Tailed Deer AC Dechen Quinn, DM Williams, WF Porter… - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014
... We captured and global positioning system–collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006–2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%)...  These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals...

J Torres-Porras, J Carranza, J Pérez-González… - European Journal of Wildlife …, 2014
Hunting can influence population structure with consequences in ecological and evolutionary processes. Populations of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Spain occur under two different management regimes:.. There is published evidence for undesirable effects of biased population sex ratio and age structure in these red deer populations. Our results indicate that this type of management may be unsustainable and recommend that harvest on males in open estates should be reduced and that on females increased, in order to maintain a more balanced population structure that may allow sustainable population dynamics and the operation of natural evolutionary processes.

K Lone, LE Loe, T Gobakken, JDC Linnell, J Odden… - Oikos, 2014
... Norway ... we investigated how predation risk was related to terrain attributes and vegetation classes/structure. As predicted, we found that increasing cover resulted in a contrasting lower predation risk from humans and higher predation risk from lynx. Greater terrain ruggedness increased the predation risk from both predators. Hence, multiple predators may create areas of contrasting risk as well as double risk in the same landscape...

An assessment of Zoonotic and Production Limiting Pathogens in Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius F Jori, J Godfroid, AL Michel, AD Potts, MR Jaumally… - Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2013
A population of approximately 70 000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius ... . The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population.

C Li, X Ping, X Lu, W Liu, H Zhu - J Biodivers Endanger Species, 2013
     South China sika deer (Cervus nippon kopschi) is a critically endangered cervid subspecies. To learn the current status of the largest population of south China sika deer in Taohongling Nature Reserve, we monitored the changes of population size from 1980 to 2011. Our survey indicated that deer population size in the core area of the reserve increased from 90 in 1983 to 312 in 1998, then decreased to 160 in 2005, and again increased to 275 in 2007 and 365 in 2011... . To provide better environment for wild sika deer, we suggest that: some measures such as prescribed burning and slash logging should be taken for restraining the arboreal succession in the reserve; deer farms of Cervus nippon hortulorum around the reserve should be reduced or removed; appropriate human activity such as restricted firewood collection might be allowed in the reserve.

... Prior to flooding, the marsh deer was distributed widely throughout the dam's catchment area; however, the marsh deer habitat was almost completely destroyed by the flooding process. This situation highlights the need to implement management strategies that ensure the survival of the remaining fragmented population...

Genetic shifts in the transition from wild to farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population PM Hernández-Mendoza, GM Parra-Bracamonte… - … Services & Management, 2013
... The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is one of the most important species related to sport hunting in northern Mexico. During the last decade, this species has been subjected to intensive breeding to achieve improvements in certain desired traits (i.e., antlers). This alleged intensive management of bringing originally wild populations into captivity might have harmful consequences on genetic diversity. In this short research paper we estimate and discuss the consequences of that transition, as assessed by a microsatellite genetic marker analysis. The results show that no short-term changes in genetic diversity parameters were promoted by captivity; however, a genetic diversity condition maintained by artificial genetic flow was identified, perhaps allowing for the required introgression of gene diversity into this closed population.

Optimal harvesting of an age-structured, two-sex herbivore–plant system O Tahvonen, J Kumpula, AJ Pekkarinen - Ecological Modelling, 2014
... This study presents an optimal harvesting model for the semi-domesticated reindeer ...  Density dependence at optimal equilibrium is realized in calf weight and in the average number of calves per female. Optimal slaughtering is concentrated on six-month-old calves. Adult females are slaughtered at the age of 9.5 years and males at the age of 5.5 years. A moderate or high interest rate increases the steady state reindeer population but decreases pasture conditions. Dynamic solutions deviate from constant escapement, implying that the optimal recovery from initially overgrazed pastures is slower than suggested in existing studies and actual policy. The shadow value for males is three times higher than for females...