Edges, exotics and deer: the seed bank of a suburban secondary successional temperate deciduous forest VB Beauchamp, N Ghuznavi, SM Koontz, RP Roberts - Applied Vegetation Science, 2013

International Deer Research Archive:  Links to some sources my no longer be active

Edges, exotics and deer: the seed bank of a suburban secondary successional temperate deciduous forest  VB Beauchamp, N Ghuznavi, SM Koontz, RP Roberts - Applied Vegetation Science, 2013
... Reliance on the soil seed bank as a passive restoration strategy will be insufficient for restoring a mature secondary successional suburban forest community. However, a suite of shade-tolerant exotic shrubs and vines that are of concern to management do not appear to use the seed bank, indicating that targeted removal of these species may be successful. Increased deer browse was associated with decreased seed bank abundance and richness, suggesting that deer may directly reduce inputs to the seed bank. If deer are impacting seed bank composition, active restoration will need to include understorey herbs in addition to overstorey species.