Sexual segregation in red deer: is social behaviour more important than habitat preferences? J Alves, AA da Silva, AMVM Soares, C Fonseca - Animal Behaviour, 2013

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Sexual segregation in red deer: is social behaviour more important than habitat preferences? J Alves, AA da Silva, AMVM Soares, C Fonseca - Animal Behaviour, 2013
... used 5 years of direct observations of animals. Adult males and sexually active females showed complete segregation during the year except in the rut and autumn seasons, showing that a red deer tends to be aggregated with its peers outside the reproductive period. The results suggested that red deer segregated not only by sex, but also between age classes, indicating that sexual segregation hypotheses need to
explain more than differences between sexes. Furthermore, both social behaviour and habitat preferences contributed significantly to sexual segregation, indicating that this phenomenon results from different choices made by males and females with respect to security and food availability in their living areas and dissimilar social behaviour of different sexes and age classes.