Variation in adult body mass of roe deer: early environmental conditions influence early and late body growth of females M Douhard, JM Gaillard, D Delorme, G Capron… - Ecology, 2013

International Deer Research Archive:  Links to some sources my no longer be active

... We used long-term data from two roe deer populations (Chizé and Trois-Fontaines, France) to investigate the direct and indirect (operating through fawn body mass) effects of environmental conditions during early life on adult body mass. We found that environmental conditions (population size and spring temperatures) around birth influenced body mass of adult females through both direct and indirect effects in both populations. The occurrence of direct effects means that, for a given fawn body mass, adult female mass decreases with adverse conditions in early life. In contrast, we found no evidence for direct effects of early life conditions on adult body mass of males, suggesting the existence of sex specific long-term responses of body mass to stressful early conditions...