Deer and Transportation Safety
Archive of news by state: Arizona, California, Idaho, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey. Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming and Canada, United Kingdom

Research Links Reducing Deer-Vehicle Collisions through enhanced road safety practices
Reducing Deer Vehicle Crashes Information Summary from Cornell University
California Roadkill Observation System Volunteers are asked to upload roadkill incidents to a database that is mapped.
A website for mitigating the effects of roads on wildlife supported by USGS and Utah State University

... Study recommendations include (1) the installation of fencing along the roadside adjacent to existing large underpasses, and (2) an animal advisory message on the dynamic message signs along I-64 in the Afton Mountain area. Messages should be displayed from dusk through dawn from October through November (to correspond with periods of higher deer activity and DVCs). Fencing both sides of just one underpass is expected to result in a savings in costs associated with DVCs of $501,473 over its service life. ..

GA Drivers Be On The Lookout This Fall: Deer-Vehicle Collisions September 28, 2015 Georgia,
... Recently published in the Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the study analyzed deer-vehicle collisions from 2005 to 2012 and then compared the timing of those wrecks with available conception data, deer movement information obtained from deer wearing GPS collars in Harris County and the old “rut map” from Georgia Outdoor News... The map can be found online and downloaded at the Georgia Department of Natural Resources’ website.   “Using Deer-vehicle Collisions to Map White-Tailed Deer Breeding Activity in Georgia” can be found online [PDF] ...

... The picture-based signs did do slightly better than the word-based signs at reducing people’s speed and brake reaction times, which supports that hypothesis,” Grace said. “However, the word-based signs were still better than having no signs at all.” ... published Wednesday in the journal Nature Conservation, ...

...  "When we covered up the reflectors with a white canvas bag, basically because we just wanted to neutralize the reflectors, we found that the white canvas bag worked better than the reflectors," ... 65 percent fewer deer carcasses in the areas where they put a white cloth bag over the reflectors simply as a control for their test ...

A scrap of white cloth is found to deter deer July 15, 2015 Wyoming, Jackson Hole News&Guide
...  reflectors covered with white bags [white cotton bags] are about 65 percent more effective than reflectors with the black bags ...  Apart from crossings — overpasses and underpasses — there’s nothing 65 percent effective out there.” ...  the best predictors of collisions:  Traffic volume and the speed limit were the most important factors relating to the nature of the road ...

Effectiveness of an acoustic wildlife warning device using natural calls to reduce the risk of train collisions with animals J Babińska-Werka, D Krauze-Gryz, M Wasilewski… - … Research Part D: Transport …, 2015
... The subject of study was the effectiveness of the UOZ-1 device – which emits the natural warning calls of animals – in protecting animals living near railway tracks... With sound signals emitted, animals escaped more often (84% vs. 68%), and their reaction to an oncoming train was 20 s faster. We found no proof that animals habituated to the warning signals ...

Context-dependent effects on spatial variation in deer-vehicle collisions AP Clevenger, M Barrueto, KE Gunson, FM Caryl… - Ecosphere, 2015
... Distance to water was an important predictor of WVCs in three of the five study areas, while other variables had modest importance in only two of the five study areas. Thus, lack of generality in factors predicting WVCs may have less to do with methodological or taxonomic differences among study areas than the large-scale, biophysical context within which the data were collected ...

FENCING: A VALUABLE TOOL FOR REDUCING WILDLIFE-VEHICLE COLLISIONS AND FUNNELLING FAUNA TO CROSSING STRUCTURES  R van der Ree, JW Gagnon, DJ Smith - Handbook of Road Ecology, 2015... Fences prevent animals from accessing roads, thereby reducing the rate of wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC). Fences also funnel animals towards crossing structures,
making them an essential component of the success of this form of mitigation. Fencing can ...

G D'Angelo, R van der Ree - Handbook of Road Ecology, 2015
... Roads present an unnatural and confusing environment for wildlife and humans alike. Wildlife reflectors and auditory deterrents aim to modify the behaviour of wildlife on or adjacent to the road. Reflectors are designed to redirect the light from oncoming vehicles ...

Hillsboro Airport Wildlife Hazard Management Plan [PDF] N Atwell, J Hilterbrand, C Kaffka, A Lauber, E Shore - 2015 Oregon
...Deer rarely find their way past the security fence and onto the airfield at HIO, and do not need to be dispersed if they are outside of the airfield security fence. If there is a need to remove deer from within the security fence, Airport staff may gently coax them to a place where they can exit the airfield or they will be lethally removed following the Port’s Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife permit...

DD Olson, JA Bissonette, PC Cramer, KD Bunnell…Utah,  - Wildlife Biology, 2015
...We found that precipitation decreased 50% and snow depth decreased 48% between winters. In response, deer used habitats that were 16% higher in elevation and that were 213% farther from roads with high traffic volumes. Consequently, crossing rates also decreased as much as 96% on roads with high traffic volumes. Reduced crossing rates were likely responsible for much of the 75% decrease in deer—vehicle collisions that occurred during the second winter....

Study focuses on migration routes in Island Park region February 8, 2015 Idaho, Rexburg Standard Journal
... The study focused primarily on moose and elk behavior and their movements across U.S. Highway 20 ... scientists recommended six of these areas for initial targeting of mitigation measures ... such as overpass and underpass structures — which allow wildlife to cross road barriers without accessing the road surface itself. In addition, associated fencing and warning systems ...

Researchers say preventing deer-vehicle collisions costly November 27, 2014 West Vigrina,
... from 2008 to 2012, more than 68 deer were struck by vehicles between mile markers 4.3 and 16.4 on U.S. Route 19... The report outlines several mitigation techniques, including the installation of more wildlife fencing, enhanced deer crossing signs that flash yellow when deer are near the roadway, and setting lower nighttime speed limits... report can be found online at

... Our objective was to test the sensitivity of WVC studies to underreporting using 2 species of large ungulates that experience substantial incidences of collisions but exist in different environmental settings: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in agricultural-dominated central Illinois and moose (Alces alces) in forest-dominated western Maine, USA...  Prediction estimates for both species were also reliable until high rates of underreporting occurred (⩾75%). These findings suggest that predictive models generate reliable estimates about WVCs with large ungulates unless underreporting is severe; possibly because they occur in non-random patterns (i.e., hotspots) and variability in their environment influences is low ...

Vehicle Collisions Cause Differential Age and Sex-Specific Mortality in Mule Deer [PDF] DD Olson, JA Bissonette, PC Cramer, KD Bunnell… - Advances in Ecology, 2014 Utah
... We found that 65% of mule deer involved in vehicle collisions were female; of those, 40% were adult does ≥2 yrs. When we compared the proportion of bucks, does, and fawns killed in vehicle collisions to surveys of live deer, we found that bucks were killed at rate of 2.1–3.0 times their proportion in the population.  Additionally, when we compared vehicle collision rates for 2010 and 2011, we found that mule deer were 7.4–8.7 times more likely to be involved in collisions than elk and 1.2–2.0 times more likely than moose. However, we were unable to detect a negative correlation (𝑃 = 0.55) between mule deer abundance and increasing traffic volume...

... large hotspots associated with suburban landscapes account for the highest frequencies of collisions, therefore these locations should be targeted for mitigation. Identifying the most critical locations to mitigate can be accomplished with relatively few reports of collisions if collected in a consistent manner. Managers should consider investing in long-term mitigation strategies (i.e., underpasses) to reduce WVCs for many years, because the ecological drivers of hotspots do not appear to change.

Targeting mitigation efforts: The role of speed limit and road edge clearance for deer–vehicle collisions EL Meisingset, LE Loe, Ø Brekkum, A Mysterud - The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2014
... The relative risk for DVCs increased with speed limit. We found a higher risk for DVCs during winter compared to the other seasons. Forest cover, distance to pasture, and terrain ruggedness substantially affected risk of DVCs. Road edge clearance reduced the frequency of DVCs, but the effect appeared in the winter season only with a decrease of 53%. Our study highlights that speed limit reduction and road edge clearance are both powerful mitigation tools to reduce the number of DVCs....

... We compared the species composition determined by track-pad and camera trap methods and found that monitoring by tracks underestimated the ratio of small canids, while camera traps underestimated the ratio of roe deer. Regarding total number of recorder events, active IR detectors recorded from 11 to 19 times more events then camera traps and app. 80% of them were not caused by animal crossings. Camera trap method underestimated the real number of total events...

Factors affecting autumn deer–vehicle collisions in a rural Virginia county William J. McShea, Chad M. Stewart, Laura J. Kearns, Stefano Liccioli, David Kocka (2008) Human–Wildlife Interactions. Vol. 1, No. 1
Abstract: Vehicular collisions with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are a safety and economic hazard to motorists. Many efforts to reduce deer–vehicle collisions (DVCs) have proven unsuccessful, but deer reduction has been a primary management tool in several states. The Virginia Department of Transportation geo-located all known DVCs in Clarke County, Virginia, from August through December 2005 (n = 246) and 2006 (n = 259). We estimated harvest intensity, deer population density, amount of forest and housing development, presence of row crops, and traffi c volume and speed for 228 road segments (each 500 m in length) within the county to determine which factors are correlated with increased DVCs. A step-wise general linear model indicated that deer density (range 5–47 deer/km2), and deer harvest levels (range 1–18 deer/km2 for 9-km2blocks) were not correlated with the location of DVCs. Road attributes (traffic volume and road type) and the amount of housing development were important attributes of road segments when predicting DVCs. The locations of DVCs during the rut were not markedly different from collisions outside the rut. Over the range of deer densities and harvest levels found in this rural county, there was little evidence that these factors influence the number of DVCs. Management efforts should include changing motorist behavior or road attributes. 

Influence of landscape features on spatial genetic structure of white‐tailed deer in human‐altered landscapes  A Locher, KT Scribner, JA Moore, B Murphy, J Kanefsky - … of Wildlife Management, 2014 Michigan
... Predictive relationships between estimates of functional population connectivity and physical and biotic landscape features can provide important insights into present and future population responses to human-mediated landscape change ... We identified features in the landscape matrix between groups including rivers, high traffic roads, and habitats of intermediate HSI as inhibiting gene flow. Low HSI was associated with low between-group Fst and appeared to facilitate gene flow. Quantification of the relative importance of man-made barriers (roads) and habitat suitability to SGS for white-tailed deer emphasizes the importance of joint use of ecological and genetic analyses in conservation and control efforts for abundant and mobile wildlife species.

... Deer harvest was implemented at Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee (ORR) in 1985 to reduce DVCs...  Harvest in the previous year was positively related to DVCs, likely reflecting higher hunter success with higher deer density. Higher traffic volume and speed were positively related to DVCs. There was no effect of moon phase for all records combined; however, analysis by season and gender showed a positive relationship to collisions for male deer during the gestation period (1 Jan–14 May), which may have been associated with dispersal.... [DVS's go up in the next year after an  increase in harvest, so the authors recommend a harvest to reduce deer vehicle collisions]...

Best Practices Manual: Wildlife Vehicle Collision Reduction Study:  Deer culling is not identified as a  best practice.

Table 2. Effectiveness, benefit, and ranking of mitigation measures (see the Report to Congress).1

Mitigation measureEstimated effectiveness (%)Balance ($/km/yr)Best practice1(yes)Page no. for more info.
Public information and education??  
Standard warning signs0%-$18  
Enhanced wildlife warning signs??  
Seasonal wildlife warning signs26%$10,878  
Animal detection systems (ADS)82%$3,091Yes2105
ADS linked to on-board computer82%?  
On-board animal detectors??  
Increase visibility (roadway lighting)??  
Increase vis. (vegetation removal)38%$15,437Yes2115
Increase vis. (wider striping)??  
Increase vis. (reflective animal collars)??  
Increase vis. (reduce snow bank height)??  
Reduce traffic volume??  
Temporary road closure??  
Reduced posted speed limit??  
Traffic calming techniques??  
Reduced advisory speed limit??  
Wildlife crossing guards??  
Deer reflectors and mirrors0%-$495  
Deer whistles0%?  
Olfactory repellents??  
Deer flagging models??  
De-icing alternatives??  
Intercept feeding??  
Min. nutritional value r-o-w vegetation??Yes2116
Carcass removal??  
Increase median width50%$18,462Yes2121
Population culling50%$18,462  
Anti-fertility treatment50%-$40,732  
Habitat alteration away from road??  
Fence (including dig barrier)87%$32,728Yes28
Boulders in right-of-way??  
Long bridges100%-$739,310  
Long tunnels or long bridges100%-$1,458,060  
Fence with gap and warning signs0%-$3,772  
Fence with gap and crosswalk40%$11,191  
Fence with gap and ADS82%$24,461Yes228, 105
Fence with underpasses87%$30,628Yes28, 56
Fence with overpasses87%$10,003Yes28, 56
Fence with under- and overpasses87%$28,978Yes28, 56

1 Determined by Project Committee for National WVC Reduction Study
2 Experimental
? Unknown

Wildlife-Vehicle Collision Mitigation for Safer Wildlife Movement across Highways: State Route 260 Arizona, National Technical Information Service
NL Dodd, JW Gagnon, S Boe, K Ogren… - 2012
Researchers investigated wildlife-highway relationships in central Arizona from 2002 to 2008 along a 17-mile stretch of State Route (SR) 260, which is being reconstructed in 5 phases and will have 11 wildlife underpasses and 6 bridges. Phased reconstruction allowed researchers to use a before-after-control experimental approach to their research. The objectives of the project were to: assess and compare wildlife use of underpasses (UPs); evaluate highway permeability and wildlife movements among reconstruction classes; characterize wildlife-vehicle collision (WVC) patterns and changes with reconstruction; assess relationships among traffic volume and WVCs, wildlife crossing patterns, and UP use; and assess the role of ungulate-proof fencing with WVCs, wildlife UP use, and wildlife permeability. Researchers used video surveillance to assess and compare wildlife use of 6 UPs, at which 15,134 animals and 11 species were recorded; 67.5% crossed through UPs. Modeling found that UP structure type and placement was the most important factor influencing the probability of successful crossings by elk (Cervus elaphus) and Coues whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Researchers used Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry tracking of 100 elk and 13 white-tailed deer to assess and compare permeability. Elk permeability on reconstructed sections was 39% lower than controls, while deer permeability was 433% higher on reconstructed sections. The elk-vehicle collision (EVC) rate on fenced reconstructed sections was the same as before-reconstruction levels, but on unfenced sections the EVC rate was nearly 4 times higher. In addition to a safer and more environmentally friendly highway, the economic benefit from reduced EVCs on SR 260 averaged $2 million/year since the completion of 3 reconstructed highway sections.

AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THEIR EFFECTIVENESS August, 2005, Virginia Transportation Research Council
Remote cameras installed at seven underpass sites in Virginia have recorded more than 2,700 wildlife photographs and documented 1,107 white-tailed deer crossings in the most heavily used structures. Underpasses with a minimum height of 12 ft were successful at facilitating deer passage. Such structures were also heavily used by a variety of wildlife species, including coyote, red fox, raccoon, groundhog, and opossum. Structures with drainages that mimic natural waterways can encourage use by a diversity of terrestrial, semi-aquatic, and aquatic species.
This report provides guidance in choosing cost-effective underpass design and location features that are necessary to consider to increase motorist safety and habitat connectivity. The findings also demonstrate that if only a minimal number of deer-vehicle collisions is prevented by an effective underpass, the savings in property damage alone can outweigh the construction costs of the structure.

"Predicting Risk of Deer-Vehicle Collisions Using a Social Media-Based Geographic Information System" G. Kent Webb (2012)  Issues in Information Systems, Volume 13, Issue 2. pp. 170-181.
This study describes some of the contradictory results in the literature resulting from data problems and concludes that a study of deer-vehicle collisions in the San Francisco Bay Area supports the theme in the literature that road conditions influence the risk of collisions more strongly than moderate variations in deer density.

In this video we walk through two practice problems involving the Poisson Distribution. The first problem examines customer arrivals to a bank ATM and the second analyzes deer-strike probabilities along sections of a rural highway. - December, 2012


An evaluation of a mitigation strategy for deer-vehicle collisions,  Utah, Wildlife Biology, 2012, John A. Bissonette & Silvia Rosa
John A. Bissonette & Silvia Rosa
High mule deer Odocoileus hemionus mortality in southwestern Utah led to the establishment of a mitigation strategy with two major objectives: 1) reduction of wildlife-vehicle collisions and 2) restoration of landscape connectivity to facilitate wildlife movement across the roaded landscape. During our study, we assess
ed the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in reducing mule deer mortality in the following ways: 1) we compared the number of deer-vehicle collisions in the newly fenced area with a control area without fencing; 2) we analyzed the ‘end-of-the-fence’ problem, defined here as increased mortality of mule deer at the ends of the 2.4-m high exclusion fences; and 3) we evaluated the frequency of animal crossings of the new underpasses using remotely-sensed cameras and compared them with crossing frequency rates for a 20-year-old control underpass. We compared six years of pre-construction mortality (during 1998-2003) with two years of post-construction data on mortality (during 2005-2006) and found a 98.5% decline in deer mortalities in the treatment (i.e. fenced, jump-outs and underpasses) vs a 2.9% decline in the control (i.e. no fences, no jump-outs and no underpasses). We detected no end-of-the-fence problems related to deer mortality. Migratory movements during fall and spring were clearly reflected in the use of underpass. Overall results demonstrated that the mitigation strategy was effective and reduced the number of deer-vehicle accidents, while allowing wildlife movement across the landscape.

Comparison of Electrified Mats and Cattle Guards to Control WhiteTailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Access through Fences National Wildlife Research Center.

Electrified Roads May Prevent Animal Collisions March 1, 2011 California Electrified pads have been installed in road surfaces to deter large wild animals like bears and deer from walking over the highway 101 corridor where eight bears and many more deer have been struck by cars and killed in the last five years. ..

Deer Deter In a joint venture with IPTE, JAFA Technologies is the exclusive distributor of the Wildlife Crossing Guard in North America. This innovative new device is designed to reduce, with the ultimate goal of eliminating, deer-vehicle collisions as a result of night-time road crossings. Installed at intervals of 50 to 100 yards, activation occurs when headlights approach the unit during the time period from dusk to dawn when the vast majority of animal-vehicle collisions occur. When activated, the unit emits a sound that is meant to simulate that of a predator or a cry of fear. The sound is supplemented by a small strobe type light that is meant to represent reflection of movement from the predator’s eyes.

Epping Forest to begin work on reducing deer collisions February 1, 2011 England BBC News Shrubs alongside two roads through Epping Forest are to be cleared in an effort to reduce the number of collisions between cars and deer. ...It will involve removing plants and debris along the verge of the B1393 and the B181, in order to improve the visibility for both drivers and deer.

Road Deaths May Be the No. 1 Threat to US Wildlife April 25, 2011 Transportation NatGeo News Watch (blog)
White-tailed deer roadkill fills the back of a pickup truck, Pennsylvania. (NGS stock photo by William Albert Allard) Automobile accidents constantly remind us of just how dangerous our roadways can be. With nearly 200 million motor vehicles taking to .

Maryland aims to curb wildlife carnage on roads ) (deer collisions cost about $300 per pound of deer hit; smaller deer mean less damage) January 2, 2011 Baltimore Sun Deer hoofprints and tracks of raccoons and other small animals traverse the soft dirt floor of an oversized stream culvert under an almost completed stretch ...
At least one fatality and more than 200 injuries to people occur each year in animal-vehicle crashes in the state. Danger is at its peak in November, when deer are breeding, but collisions occur year-round.

[PDF] Cost–benefit analyses of mitigation measures aimed at reducing collisions with large ungulates in the United States and Canada; a decision support tool (2009)

Deer-Car Accidents in Southern Michigan Ross E. Allen and Dale R. McCullough, Journal of Wildlife Management, vol 40., no. 2 1976.
Of the 2,566 accidents studies, "...the deer was killed in 92 percent of the accidents. Human injuries occurred in less than 4 percent, and most resulted from secondary collisions."

Methods to Reduce Traffic Crashes Involving Deer: What Works and What Does Not. Traffic Injury Prevention, Volume 5, Issue 2, 2004, Pages 122 - 131
More than 1.5 million traffic crashes involving deer, producing at least $1.1 billion in vehicle damage and about 150 fatalities, are estimated to occur annually in the United States. Deer-related crashes are increasing as both deer populations and vehicular travel increase. Many methods have been used in attempts to reduce deer crashes, often with little scientific foundation and limited evaluation. This article summarizes the methods and reviews the evidence of their effectiveness and the situations in which each may be useful. The only widely accepted method with solid evidence of effectiveness is well-designed and maintained fencing, combined with underpasses or overpasses as appropriate. Herd reduction is controversial but can be effective. Deer whistles appear useless. Roadside reflectors appear to have little long-term effect, although additional well-designed evaluations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Both temporary passive signs and active signs appear promising in specific situations, but considerable research is required to evaluate long-term driver response and to improve and test deer detection technology for active signs. Other methods using advanced technology require substantial additional research and evaluation.

Examination of Factors Affecting Driver Injury Severity in Michigan's Single-Vehicle—Deer Crashes (2009)
Peter Savolainen and Indrajit Ghosh Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
Michigan is plagued by more than 60,000 deer—vehicle crashes on an annual basis. Although the majority of these crashes result in property damage only, a substantial number lead to significant injuries and fatalities, illustrating the need for a better understanding of the many interrelated factors that affect crash severity. A database of all single-vehicle deer—vehicle crashes (DVC) reported to Michigan law enforcement agencies between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2005, was used to estimate a multinomial logit model of driver injury severity. Results revealed a number of driver, vehicle, and environmental factors that significantly influenced injury severity. Younger drivers were more likely to be injured as a result of a DVC, a possible indication of a lack of appropriate skills or knowledge on the part of these drivers when they encounter deer on the roadway. Female drivers were found to be at an increased risk of injury, as were drivers who had a passenger in the vehicle at the time of the crash. Seatbelt and airbag usage were found to be the most effective means of reducing the likelihood of severe injuries, although airbags did increase the likelihood of minor injuries. Impacting deer head-on and avoiding run-off-the-road collisions were also found to reduce the propensity of injury. Educational and enforcement initiatives, such as the "Don't Veer for Deer" campaign, may provide a cost-effective means of combating the DVC problem. addressing the DVC severity issue.

National Deer-Vehicle Collisions Project, England, (2003-2005)The severity of DVCs (in terms level of damage sustained to vehicles and injuries to drivers), may generally be expected to increase with the size of the animal or deer species concerned. Among the six main free ranging deer species in England, the largest by far are red deer, with fully grown females commonly reaching weights in excess of 100kg and stags up to 200kg; the next largest species are fallow and sika (mean adult female weight c.50kg) at
approximately half the size and weight of red deer. The remaining three species are all significantly smaller, with roe approximately half the weight of adult fallow, while muntjac and Chinese Water deer somewhat smaller still. Hartwig (1991) in a study of DVCs reported to police authorities in western Germany found that 97.5% of collisions with roe deer caused only minor damage (up to 3000 DM; equiv. c.£1000) and therefore often go unrecorded, with the remainder causing more extensive damage and/or injury. For red deer, equivalent figures provided by Hartwig were 88% of collisions leading to minor damage, and 12% with major damage or injury; while figures for fallow were intermediate with 93% causing minor damage and 7% major damage or injury. Similarly, Haikonen and Summala (2001) in Finland estimated that the percentage of whitetailed deer-vehicle collisions resulting in human injuries lies at 1.3%, but rises to 9.9 % for incidents involving moose.

Wildlife-Highway Crossing Mitigation Measures May, 2007 Seasonal wildlife warning signs (2 signs per km, one sign for each travel direction, and an assumed life span of 10 years, no maintenance) may result in a 26% reduction of deer-vehicle collisions, and could end up saving $10,393 per km per year. Bear in mind, however, that these types of signs are only applicable in situations where deer (or other large animals) display road crossing behavior that is concentrated in space and time. Animal detection systems (life span 10 years, costs include maintenance) cost more, but still result in a positive balance of $1,562 per km per year because of their effectiveness in reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions by 82%. Vegetation removal, however, demonstrates more potential and may result in a positive balance of $14,729 per km per year.Assuming that deer reflectors and mirrors (life span 12.5 years, costs includes maintenance) are indeed not effective in reducing deer-vehicle collisions, they have a negative balance of $495 per km per year.

Cost for culling, relocation, and anti-fertility treatment was set at $110, $450, and $1128 (females only), respectively. Assuming that a population can only be reduced by 50% before the culling, relocation, or anti-fertility treatment efforts become much more labor intensive, the one time culling and relocation of 68.4 deer costs $7,524 and $30,780 (reduction of 68.4 deer). Suburban white-tailed deer populations can double their population size every 2-5 years, depending on the circumstances (DeNicola et al. 2000). Assuming a closed population (no immigration from adjacent areas) and a doubling of population size every 3 years, the culling and relocation effort would have to be repeated every 3 years, resulting in an annual cost per km road length of $2,508, $10,260 for culling and relocation. For the anti-fertility treatment, it was assumed that 80% of the females (80% of 68.4 female deer is 54.7 female deer, assuming an equal sex ratio), would have to be treated annually to stabilize or reduce the population density (DeNicola et al. 2000, Rudolph et al. 2000). This results in an annual cost for anti-fertility treatment of $61,702. The above calculations result in a positive balance for culling and relocation, and in a negative balance for anti-fertility treatment. Bear in mind that if the population is open to immigration from adjacent areas that the effectiveness for the culling, relocation, and anti-fertility treatment efforts will be much reduced or potentially eliminated.

... After studying the deer it was determined that they were visiting the tracks to get iron supplements for a more balanced diet... a Yukuru ... pretty much just a regular salt lick but it contains one very important ingredient: iron ... Just drop a few Yukuru in a convenient location in the woods and let them hang out there instead ...

Virginia leading on driverless-vehicle efforts October 18, 2015 The Daily Progress
... A high-tech camera on the Smart Road that could one day be deployed along public roads can detect and alert drivers to foreign objects entering the roadway, such as deer...

... “You have stranded herds of animals,” says Kevin Halesworth, a biologist with the Oregon Department of Transportation.  “As the traffic level increases, the deer are less able to cross the highway until it gets to a point where from studies, the deer just won’t cross at all any more. “ ...Oregon is imitating Canada ... with 44 bridges built exclusively for wildlife.  They’ve been a tremendous success...

Deer Crash To Be Decided By South Dakota Supreme Court October 5, 2015 South Dakota, Keloland 
... Zerfas swerved to avoid a deer carcass in his lane, lost control, was hit by oncoming traffic and later died ... Lawyers for AMCO insurance say there's no requirement in South Dakota or any other state that a driver has to remove road kill...

Hunting season drives deer into roadways says OHP October 2, 2015 Oklahoma, Chickasha News The Express Star
... The Oklahoma Highway Patrol (OHP) is advising drivers to slow down and pay attention as hunting season pushes deer out on to the roads...

... The top hotspot location in the state is State Route 64 in Lucas County between Reed Rd. and U.S. Route 20 Airport Highway with 19 crashes in 2014...

State using hunting zones to cut deer-car collisions September 30, 2015 Indiana, Tribune-Star
... In Indiana, about 15,000 collisions between cars and deer were reported last year, down from a peak of more than 16,000 in 2008, before the state began a multi-year effort to reduce the deer population by nearly 25 percent... [resulting in a 6 percent decline in collisions with deer]

... Deer and Moose refused to walk over the rocks placed underneath the bridge during construction. So, VTrans agreed to cover them with dirt. Grass is now growing, and deer are starting to use this pathway... 

Google's driverless cars skirt deer and pedestrians in Texas September 3, 2015 Engadget 
... they've been spotting and avoiding a lot of deer, some of which might have ended up as road kill if they happened to come across ordinary vehicles instead...

Highway fence prevents animal deaths August 1, 2015 Colorado, Pueblo Chieftain
... Wildlife fencing along Interstate 25 south of Fountain ... a cost of $1 million ... 6.2-mile length ... collisions dropped to four from 26 over a time period beginning in September 2009 and continuing until December...

...  helps draw the attention of the driver to potentially hazardous objects such as pedestrians, cyclists and even large animals such as deer... employs an infra-red camera in the front of the car ...

High wildlife kill rate along I-84 in Morgan County June 27, 2015 Utah, Standard-Examiner
... “One spring, the (UDOT) Region 1 maintenance crew loaded a 10-wheel dump truck with slaughtered deer, elk, and moose,” ... Cramer and her staff are trying to develop electric pavement mats to give animals a small shock and encourage them to stay away...  their hooves insulate their bodies and it doesn’t work.”  ... even with the expense, bridges and underpasses aren’t always effective ...

... While the deer population is considered to be down in Clay County, Hawley noted the sheriff's office has not witnessed fewer reports of car-deer accidents... Drivers need to keep their heads up ...

... it's removing an antler-point restriction so hunters can kill more young bucks in 19 counties near or where the fatal disease has been found [chronic wasting disease] ...

Animals getting overpass on I-90 June 7, 2015 Washington, The Seattle Times
... the state Department of Transportation will break ground east of Snoqualmie Pass on the state’s first freeway overpass for animals. The 150-foot-long structure is designed to provide safe passage for species ranging from black bear and cougar to deer, elk ...

Birthing Season Sets Deer On Collision Course With Vehicles June 8, 2015 Pennsylvania, Insurance News Net
... About 90 percent of adult female white-tailed deer -- those classified as older than 1 year -- will give birth by June 27. As the mothers care for their fawns, they'll urge their yearlings -- last year's fawns -- to move on.  "These yearlings are moving into new territories, and they're crossing unfamiliar roads, and unfortunately not all of them make it," ...

Deer falling to their death on parkway overpass June 1, 2015 Ontario, Windsor Star
... deer unfamiliar with the new landscape have run to their death off an overpass of the new $1.4-billion Herb Gray Parkway... Ontario transportation ministry officials acknowledged Monday the change in terrain and their growing numbers has caused an issue with deer falling off an overpass of the parkway...
Highway 37 crossing for wildlife in the works May 24, 2015 California, Santa Rosa Press Democrat
... Highway 37, which connects Novato to Vallejo, slices right through major habitat for jackrabbits, deer ... The Land Trust is working on creating a safer wildlife passage under the highway... Animals avoided the underpass, about three-quarters of a mile west of the intersection of Highways 37 and 121, because of the lack of trees and shrubs to serve as cover ...

Drivers beware: Deer, elk crossing roads May 7, 2015 Colorado, Durango Herald
... estimated 40,000 mule deer and 40,000 elk that make up the herds between Cortez and Pagosa Springs are migratory... Over the 10-year period 2004-13, the average day that mule deer cross U.S. Highway 160 heading north to summer range was May 12. Conversely, on the return trip to winter range, the average day that mule deer crossed Highway 160 heading south was Oct. 24...

Wildlife Corridors Set To Be Installed Along Highway 9 May 8, 2015 Colorado, CBS Denver
... A series of over and under passes on Highway 9 between Kremmling and Silverthorne will allow wildlife like deer and elk to cross safely. Nearly 500 animals have died trying to cross in the past decade, and 16 people have been killed by such an incident over the past 20 years... [photo from Colorado Department of Transportation]

...  the number of deer-involved crashes -- also down 7 percent from 49,205 to 45,690...
Browse our Store for Deer Warning and Avoidance Systems for Vehicles.

Bullet-train backers meet resistance in rural Texas April 12, 2015 Texas, Corsicana Daily Sun
... Commissioners in nine counties along the route, who've recently passed resolutions against the plan, fear being railroaded into a project that will wreck land values, ruin the deer hunting and leave taxpayers holding the bag...

U.S. 41 near twin bridges becoming a deer graveyard March 11, 2015 Kentucky, Evansville Courier and Press
... High water levels are forcing deer out of their habitat beneath the twin bridges and causing them to cross U.S. 41 near Henderson, Kentucky — often with deadly results ...  Kentucky transportation workers were removing five or six dead deer per day...

Deer signs on Kansas 10 have been taken down February 21, 2015 Kansas City Star (blog)
... Researchers determined that the signs do little to prevent crashes ... the new policy sets a higher threshold for placement of the signs...
Fence pitched to prevent deer deaths along South Fraser Perimeter Road February 18, 2015 British Columbia, The Vancouver Sun
... spent about $700,000 on new wildlife fencing designed to keep deer off Highway 17, the new South Fraser Perimeter Road ... At last count, at least 71 black-tailed deer have been killed on the highway... the province’s first major transportation route in B.C. to incorporate wildlife collision prevention ...

... Lance DeVoe, a biologist with the city of Rochester Hills, discussed a non-lethal deer management program created and implemented in his city, arguing low-cost methods such as education of residents and improved road signage have been successful.  "There's been about a 40 percent decrease in car-deer accidents and a 75 percent decrease in the complaints coming into the city," ...

... U.S. Highway 20 and Idaho Highway 87 ... mitigation measures may consist of crossing structures--such as overpass and underpass structures--which allow wildlife to cross road barriers without accessing the road surface itself. In addition, associated fencing and warning systems to alert motorists of wildlife approaching the roadway are being considered...

... after deer fencing was installed in 2013 at a cost of $810,000 on both sides of a five-mile stretch in Aurora and northern Douglas County, collisions dropped from 20 in 2013 to three last year...

Racine, Deer on the runway: Batten Airport deals with furry visitors January 17, 2015 Wisconsin, Journal Times
... In order to keep the deer away from danger, airport employees have special noisemakers to scare the animals away. A deer depredation program at the airport uses bow hunting to remove the deer, but employees try to avoid these measures... According to David Mann ...

...  zones had a reduced night time speed limit, increased signage and even increased fines for speeding... It worked a little ... "Overall, it looks like collisions went down, but it didn't show in the speed study that people were slowing down,' ...

Missouri Town Hosting Vigil for Dead Deer January 7, 2015 Missouri, Newser
... Vigil organizers say in a press release that the town is forking over "$46,000 to kill 100 deer on as little as two-acre parcels"  ... The goal was to squash the number of car-deer collisions, but organizers say that hasn't happened ... Per the town's deer management reporting, 30 verified car-deer collisions occurred in 2014, compared with 38 in 2013 ...

... Methods and systems for preventing collisions between vehicles and moving hazards include the use of active signs, a network of sensors, and a controller. Such sensors can be placed adjacent to a roadway and are used to detect the presence of animals...

Staten Island politician mocks city's deer awareness Twitter campaign November 22, 2014 New York, Staten Island Advance
... In 2007, Assemblyman Michael Cusick was instrumental in getting the New York State DOT to install deer crossing signs on the West Shore Expressway. Borelli doesn't understand why it's taken the city so long to begin installing its signage on local Island streets...

CPW pitches plan to bring back deer numbers November 12, 2014 Colorado, The Durango Herald
... The mule deer numbers are in decline in Western Colorado and all across the Western U.S... Eight-foot fences have to be built along the highways to help funnel deer to the underpasses. The department plans to start with underpasses beneath a highway in Grand County. U.S. Highway 550 from Montrose to Ouray and along U.S. Highway 50 from Gunnison to Monarch pass are also slated for construction...

Wildlife bridges offer deer, antelope safe passage over highways November 8, 2014 Wyoming, Wyoming Tribune-Eagle News 
... From October 2012 through December 2013, at least 36,071 mule deer and pronghorn have moved through the new crossings... From their perspective, the bridge's surface looks just like the prairie on either side of the span. Thanks to the 4-foot high berms on the edge of the 150-foot-wide overpass ...

... a stretch of Highway 9 north of Silverthorne ... 550 animals have died after being hit by cars and trucks in the last nine winter seasons, or about 61 a year.  More than 90 percent of those deaths are mule deer ... a private donor started the push ... building two wildlife overpasses and five underpasses in just over 10 miles of the road ...

     According to the California Roadkill Observation Systems, CROS,the rate of deer deaths from collisions with vehicles is much higher this year than in the last 5 years.   Volunteer observers report carcasses that they see on or near roads on the CROS website. The system is the largest of its kind in the world (volunteer-science) and second only to a government-run system in Sweden for displaying wildlife-vehicle-collisions. The website has been operating since 2009, has received over 28,000 observations and has over 1,000 registered users. [Photograph of deer on I-280 by Kathryn Harrold] ...

Efforts to minimize wildlife-vehicle collisions showing success November 1, 2014 Wyoming, Laramie Boomerang
... Efforts began with warning signs; then flashing lights were added, Hall said. Such methods did little to reduce the carnage in that section of highway — which crosses big game winter range and bisects a major migration corridor ... However, building wildlife-friendly underpasses with fencing to funnel the animals toward the structures was successful. Deer-vehicle collisions were reduced by 85 percent ...

Oak Bay, To cull or not to cull is a legal question October 24, 2014 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... In 2006, the City of Ottawa implemented an aggressive public-awareness campaign, rather than culling, to reduce vehicle collisions caused by deer. Ottawa found that deer-vehicle collisions decreased from about 900 to 600 a year after two years of public awareness... 

Collision course: car accidents with deer spike during migration season October 21, 2014 California, Siskiyou Daily News
... Highway 3 in Scott Valley ... $1 million was put into a roadside animal detection system...  four signs that were supposed to warn drivers when something triggered the sensors. The system proved to be a bust, and by the end of January all radar equipment, video cameras, warning signs and data collection devices were removed...

... The 12 mile stretch of U.S. 89 is part of a long-term study to find the best way of accommodating both wildlife and traffic.  “What we’re doing is putting in some deer fencing to funnel the animals a safe place to cross,” .

Wildlife motion detectors sought by county October 17, 2014 Idaho, Idaho Mountain Express and Guide
... the committee decided Wednesday to seek funding from the Idaho Transportation Department for “nontraditional” warning signs and an animal detection system that has proven 
to be effective in reducing vehicle-animal collisions in northern Idaho.  The animal detection radar system was developed to protect military convoys in Iraq and Afghanistan by Sloan Security Technologies...

... The 12 mile stretch of U.S. 89 is part of a long-term study to find the best way of accommodating both wildlife and traffic. “What we’re doing is putting in some deer fencing to funnel the animals a safe place to cross,” ...

It also deters geese and deer – Hill inventor receives a patent on weed-free grass August 8, 2014 Pennsylvania, Chestnut Hill Local
... Geese, deer and even insects tend to avoid FlightTurf®. Based on Kobland’s years of research on airfields, including, among others, Northeast Philadelphia Airport (PNE), this turfgrass and vegetative management system requires only one mow per year to maintain an average height of 6-7 inches... visit

Deer problems? There's an app for that March 26, 2014 Examiner
... AvoiDeer ... The app aims to reduce the number of deer/vehicle accidents by providing warnings to drivers about roadside wildlife ahead. Warnins are made by alerts on the user's smartphone ...

Forest Service employees often drive long distances to their units and field sites daily. In the course of this driving, they may encounter animals crossing the road, which may lead to collisions. In the United States, a recent study estimated there are more than one million collisions between vehicles and large animals annually. This 25--minute safety training program will help you reduce your probability of having large animal-vehicle collisions, especially with deer. - February, 2014

New Volvo XC90 can spot deer or moose as well as people January 15, 2014
... Volvo has improved its cameras to be able to detect pedestrians at night, even before the driver can see them, as well as large animals such as deer, elk, and moose... the system can apply the brake independently. It intervenes only at the last minute and should not be mistaken for an autonomous driving feature...

Car Safety Company Debuts Deer Detection System October 29, 2013 California, Santa Barbara Independent
... Autoliv Electronics Night Vision, an arm of an $8.6 billion automotive safety company that has designed and manufactured seatbelts and airbags since 1953. Today, the company is also building infrared systems to help drivers see better at night and avoid hitting people and animals on the road... a video display in the dashboard that pinpoints and highlights heat-emitting animals up to 160 yards ahead — drivers typically can’t see beyond 40 yards ...
'Disco poles' deter deer collisions October 13, 2013 Toronto Sun
... LED traffic poles being used in Austria to deter deer reduced collisions by 90%. "These solar-panel-powered devices, nicknamed 'disco poles,' react to car headlights and emit a high-pitched, rhythmic sound and flash LED lights in blue and yellow to frighten elk away," ...

Deer Collisions Decline in the United States September 30, 2013 Illinois, The Auto Chanel
... The odds that an individual driver in the United States will crash into a deer during the next year have declined by 4.3 percent. ... State Farm estimates 1.22 million collisions caused by the presence of deer between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013, a 3.5 percent decrease from a year ago... when you account for the increase in the number of drivers on the nation’s roadways over [the last five years], the likelihood of any one of those drivers being the victim of a deer-vehicle confrontation has dropped 2.5 percent...

Fort Thomas report shows fewer deer, more accidents May 7, 2013 Ohio,
... City administrator Donald Martin presented the annual deer report ... while aerial census results show the deer population has decreased from 205 in 2010, to 96 in February 2013, the deer-related vehicle accidents have gone up from 13 in 2010, to 19 in 2011, and 20 in 2012, along with one deer-related bicycle accident.... councilman Roger Peterman said. “The thing that bothered me is that we went into this (archery program) for safety, and it’s not working.” ...

Monitoring Mule Deer Movement and Survival - May, 2013, Wyoming

Knox County eyes salt licks, Scouts, Lions to rid airport of deer May 7, 2014 Maine, Bangor Daily News
... The deer wandered onto airport grounds when an unlocked gate on a newly installed $892,000 perimeter fence blew open in the wind ... the fence did prevent wildlife from getting on the airport grounds during the winter... local Boy Scouts and Cub Scouts, who would go track down the deer and form a human chain to try to drive the animals toward the gate and off the property...

Drivers in America's national parks are killing the very bears, deer and wolves they're hoping to see July 27, 2013 USA Today
... "The wildlife is being sacrificed in order to be viewed," said Jeff Ruch, executive director of Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, which researched roadkill deaths in national parks. PEER said the 401-unit national park system lacks a systematic way of tracking when wildlife is hurt or killed by drivers, making it hard to reduce roadkill and to gather an accurate count ...

Wildlife fence extended on Highway 82 June 1, 2013 Colorado, Aspen Times
... The wildlife fencing is the most cost-effective tool CDOT has found to reduce accidents between cars and wildlife, said agency spokeswoman Nancy Shanks... “Obviously we can’t fence everywhere,” ... The 6-foot-high wood frames ... Earth is piled up against them to form a ramp from the highway side. The opposite side is a wooden wall that is high enough to prevent deer and elk from jumping up and into the highway corridor. However, wildlife stuck in the corridor is able to climb the ramp to safety on the opposite side...

Nebraska's $1.4 million fencing project along Interstate 80 proves drivers and animals are now safer. - March 18, 2013

Council Talks Deer Management, Chevy Chase Program Deemed A Success? February 28, 2013 Maryland, Bethesda Now
... County data shows the deer management program racked up 5,598 deer kills during the 2012-2013 seasons, 5,571 in 2011-2012, 5,969 in 2010-2011 and 5,599 in 2009-2010. Despite those totals, the number of reported deer-vehicle collisions hasn’t shown many signs of a long-term decrease. There were 2,019 reported deer-related vehicle accidents in the county in 2012 and 2,038 in 2011. The annual number has not dipped below the 1,841 a
ccidents since 2000 and in six of those years, the number exceeded 2,000 accidents.

Fort Thomas report shows fewer deer, more accidents May 7, 2013 Ohio,
... City administrator Donald Martin presented the annual deer report ... while aerial census results show the deer population has decreased from 205 in 2010, to 96 in February 2013, the deer-related vehicle accidents have gone up from 13 in 2010, to 19 in 2011, and 20 in 2012, along with one deer-related bicycle accident.... councilman Roger Peterman said. “The thing that bothered me is that we went into this (archery program) for safety, and it’s not working.” ...

Deer, elk and even a coyote test the unique US97 wildlife undercrossing near, Bend, Oregon - September, 2012

ear November 27, 2012 Fox News
Deer Deter is an automated electronic system designed to keep wild deer and other large animals from running into oncoming traffic in the dark of night. Using a combination of light and sound, it literally stops the animals in their tracks as cars pass by... According to the company’s U.S. representative, Edward A Mulka ... Over 11,000 of the units have been deployed in Europe near known deer feeding points... the installations have reduced collisions by up to 90 percent. 

JAFA Technologies, Inc. of Mount Laurel, NJ announced today that Austrian company IPTE Schalk and Schalk OG completed development of a far more intelligent, less expensive, next generation animal-vehicle collision avoidance system that has additional intelligent transportation and roadside communications capabilities. In addition to significantly reducing animal-vehicle collisions, the DeerDeter system ...
The units are activated by approaching headlights that set off an audible alarm and accompanying strobe light that acquires the attention of the animal long enough to give it reason to take pause in its travel toward the roadway ... 

Success with Audio Warnings - IPTE`s Wildlife-Vehicle Collision Avoidance System - August, 2012

De-icing agent in deer debate April 14, 2012 Japan, The Japan Times
Nagano Prefecture applies a de-icing compound to its roads to prevent them from freezing over in winter, but the substance may be endangering wild deer by luring them to busy routes to feed on the salt it contains."The compound is an easily accessible source of salt for deer, and more of them are wandering onto roads to lap it up," said Manabu Miyazaki, 62, who has photographed such behavior.

Goal To Evolve Backtail Genetics in California is Heavy Horn Growth ... a Private Landowner Management (PLM) agreement with the Department of Wildlife of the State of California. Each pound of weight increase in the deer adds ad ditional damage in a traffic accident. 
Oh deer, watch out! – Volvo developing system to avoid collision with wild animalsJune 10, 2011 TransportationASEAN Automotive News
A development team from Volvo spent time at a safari park digitally logging film sequences of animals and their various behavioral patterns, focusing on moose, red deer and fallow deer. The company says that the greatest danger is from collisions with a moose, or Eurasian elk, if you prefer. In an impact with an Alces alces, there’s a relatively high risk of personal injury, since it’s common for the animal to end up on or roll across the front of the car and its windscreen. See video at the link below:

Reflectors Seem To Curb Deer Accidents April 6, 2011 Transportation
By Will James Apr 5, 2011 5:31 PM Wildlife advocates say they are planning to extend a stretch of roadside reflectors along Stephen Hands Path that are meant to curb nighttime car-deercollisions, citing the apparent success of the experimental system ...

Deer Birth Control Could Prevent Collisions September 1, 2011 
Discovery News
... A birth control injection for deer puts them completely out of the mood to mate for up to five years without a booster.... GonaCon ... eliminates dangerous and destructive courtship behaviors responsible for the autumn increase in collisions between cars and deer....Other deer birth control vaccines prevent pregnancy, but they don't stop the animals from exhibiting mating behaviors, said David Goldade of the U. S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service/Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) in Fort Collins, Colo., where GonaCon was developed....Reindeer Help Christmas Trees Grow [slide show]

Rochester Hills: Suburb cuts deer-car collisions by 25 percent November 23, 2011 Michigan, Plain Dealer. By Donna J. Miller, Plain Dealer reporter... Despite a 34 percent increase in the Rochester Hills deer population since 2009, the city experienced a 25 percent reduction in deer-vehicle crashes, the Southeastern Michigan Council of Governments said. The decline was up to five times greater than that seen in neighboring areas, which did not use the signs and "Don't veer for the deer" campaign.... Get details at (scroll down to Deer Management Information).
dvc infographic

Infographic: Deer-Vehicle Collisions – The Facts, Solutions and Driving Tips December 2, 2011
the KAP. Design studio
When you consider the potential mass appeal of the scientific journal papers (mostly text) I reviewed compared with this new infographic (eye-catching graphics, filtered data and text), the infographic is far more likely to go viral and reach more people. It is the peak time of year for deer-vehicle collisions in Canada so read and share
this infographic to be safe. Drive safely!

Mule Deer and Transportation Issues in Wyoming - double click for full screen

The Video Below is Graphic Evidence of the Horror of Deer Vehicle Collisions.  

WARNING, GRAPHIC VIDEO: Deer Busted Up by Vehicle Collision - March 24, 2013