Utah Deer Population:  Estimated at 372,500 in 2018 and 2019, up from 363,650 in 2017 although a downward trend from 2019 to 2020.  About 385,000 deer in 2016 and 384,000 deer in 2015.  About 355,600 deer in Utah after the hunts in 2014.  The harsh 2016-17 winter prompted emergency feeding and reduced the herd.  Drought in 2016 and 2018 also reduced the herd while mild winters in the four years going into 2016 helped the herd recover.   A long downward trend for about 40 years.  Herd analysis at right.  Historical Utah hunting data and news archive.
Utah Deer News

Stop the Unnecessary Killing of Deer in Pepperwood [petition] December 1, 2020 Utah, Change.Org
... Some residents of Pepperwood (a PUD in Sandy, UT) claim there are too many deer ... Utah DWR has “discontinued its translocation in urban deer program” ... This means killing the deer with hired bow and arrow hunters in the midst of our neighborhood and on the streets of Pepperwood...

... The bridge's construction came after 46 deer, 14 moose, and four elk were killed on that stretch of highway in 2016 and 2017 alone... 350-foot-long bridge ...  we expected it to take several years before the animals got used to using it ...

... Constitutional Amendment E, it will now be written in Utah's constitution that state residents have a “constitutional right to hunt and fish in Utah ...

Utah Mule Deer Unit Plans - Northern Region - November 3, 2020


Utah Mule Deer Unit Plans - Southern Region, presented by Teresa Griffin - November 3, 2020 Utah


Utah Mule Deer Unit Plans - Central Region, presented by Riley Peck - November 3, 2020



... Manti City has just completed the first year of its deer control program ... six traps ... moved them around ... Seven deer were trapped and killed... Barton did not want to talk about how the city killed the deer it captured...

... CWD, which was first discovered in Utah in 2002 ...  this year, we are seeing that they’re eating well,” Root said on Monday. “And even though it’s been a drought, some of these deer have pretty good fat content.” ...

... For the past four years, the city has had a dual program of lethal and non-lethal methods of getting rid of the urban deer population... In early 2019 the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources ended transporting trapped deer to new locations because of concerns of spreading Chronic Wasting Disease ... “Looking at the numbers, I’m not persuaded it has made a difference,” said George Handley, council chairman. “I don’t see any significant reduction in traffic accidents.” ...

... In an effort to help relieve pressure on dwindling mule deer populations, the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources plans to issue additional hunting permits for cougars throughout the state this fall... 

Deer, Elk seasons open August 19, 2020 Utah, Daily Herald
... Utah Division of Wildlife Resources biologists estimate that Utah’s deer populations have seen a decrease in the past year, primarily due to drought conditions in the spring, summer and fall of 2018, followed by a heavy winter in 2019. Elk populations are estimated to have a slightly decreasing trend, but are fairly stable..,

... biologists estimate that Utah's deer populations have seen a decrease in the past year, primarily due to drought conditions in the spring, summer and fall of 2018, followed by a heavy winter in 2019. Elk populations are estimated to have a slightly decreasing trend, but are fairly stable..,

... a law passed by state legislators earlier this year. The law change allows a Utah Division of Wildlife Resources director to directly take steps to reduce predator populations when big game populations dip below the state’s management objectives... to protect mule deer ...

... occupants of the truck were seen shooting at deer in a field.  Officers responded and found that six deer, two bucks and four does ... a conservation officer located two deer that had been shot and left to waste in a field ...

DWR asks public not to feed wildlife after deer found dead from chronic wasting disease April 6, 2020 Utah, St. George News
... it is not illegal to feed wildlife ... two mule deer have been found dead in the yards of Moab residents. Both of these deer tested positive for chronic wasting disease ... Feeding deer can cause large groups of them to congregate into one area, increasing the chance of the disease spreading from one animal to the next ...

... a move wildlife experts say is needed to preserve the state’s deer populations.  Despite hitting a 10 year peak in 2016, drought, long winters and devastating fires have chipped away at Utah’s deer populations ... a healthy ratio is 60 fawns for every 100 does, but in some regions the number of fawns is down to 30 per 100 does..,

... From now until April 11 is the most critical time of the year for deer in Utah. In addition to being weak after a long winter, deer are transitioning from eating a diet of browse (brush and twigs) to eating mostly green grasses...

... The proposed changes [see video below] come as Utah Division of Wildlife Resources biologists have reported a dip in buck-to-doe ratios over the past four years ... That drop was preceded by buck populations rising to beyond the agency’s statewide objective; for bucks that’s defined as 15-20 bucks per 100 does... 

DWR Recommendations


... this time of year is critical for mule deer and migrating waterfowl. In Utah, mule deer are weakened by the winter and it’s difficult for them to find food...

... A witness saw the spotlights in the dark ...  charged in Fifth District Court with wanton destruction of protected wildlife, a third-degree felony, and with a tagging requirement violation, a class B misdemeanor ...

" ... another deer had been completely sliced open by the fence and was hanging on it ... It was horrible to see. I had to get the deer down.” ... these fences ... have these spikes that are pretty brutal ... The current plan is to ... remove the spikes and replace them with flat plugs ...

... The new website, which launched Tuesday, shows all the different animals biologists are tracking, the amount they’re tracking, and the locations of each tracking project. For example, biologists are tracking 12 Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep at the Canyon Mountains in central Utah and 40 elk at the Book Cliffs in eastern Utah...

Effect of Net‐Gun Capture on Survival of Mule Deer M Van de Kerk, BR McMillan, KR Hersey, A Roug… - Journal of Wildlife Management, 2020 Utah
... a large‐scale research and monitoring project in Utah, USA, has involved capturing and radio‐collaring hundreds of mule deer ... Weekly survival rates of captured deer during weeks 4–6 were 0.993 ± 0.001, the same as those of deer that were not captured at the same time. Furthermore, post‐capture survival rates were positively influenced by body size and negatively influenced by age...

... House Bill 125, sponsored by Republican Carl Albrecht from Richfield, would mandate Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Managers immediately issue hunting tags on bear, cougar and coyote when herd numbers drop too low...

... “Cougar populations don’t immediately decline when deer populations do, and in some cases, cougar populations may be maintained by switching to different types of prey.  Deer populations in some areas of Utah, however, have declined due to drought and heavy winter conditions over the past two years,” ..,

Utah bill puts more lions and bears in the crosshairs to protect deer. Critics say it runs contrary to science February 3, 2020 Salt Lake Tribune
... HB25 mandates the Division of Wildlife Resources to “take immediate action” to reduce those large predators, as well as automatically increase permits to hunt them ... many big game hunters fear the state’s treasured deer and elk herds are struggling in the face of three tough winters in a row ...

Ethics course required before gathering shed antlers in Utah January 28, 2020 Utah, Gephardt Daily
... late winter and early spring is a tough time of year for deer, elk and moose ... which is why the educational ethics course is required if you want to go “shed hunting” between Feb. 1 and April 15... 

... A rare black mule deer that wandered around the redrock of Moab — and who residents there lovingly nicknamed “Coal” because of his uncommonly dark fur — died last month from chronic wasting disease ... it’s the sixth deer in the La Sal Mountains and the 16th in the state to test positive since July 2019...

... In response to a decline in deer populations in some pockets of the state due, in part, to adverse weather conditions and the animals falling prey to cougars in recent years, state wildlife officials issued an “emergency” increase of 117 cougar harvest objectives in 11 areas across Utah .., [Graph from Utah DWR]

A family in Garfield County, Utah is outraged after accusing a Division of Wildlife Resource Officer of trespassing onto their property to kill a domesticated deer. - January 15, 2020

... Law enforcement in two southern Utah counties are investigating threats towards a conservation officer who shot a domesticated deer ...  which [the family] had rescued at its birth ....The DWR tells FOX 13 they are still reviewing the incident and are working with the family to come to a resolution and to make sure something like this doesn’t happen again...
... The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources met with multiple sheriffs following an incident in which a conservation officer went on private property to euthanize a deer ... “(The DWR) thinks they can do whatever they want, and they’ve overstepped their bounds here,” ...

...  Residents in southeastern Utah quickly fell in love with an extremely rare melanistic mule deer that frolicked through their yards ... name him “Coal” for his extremely rare dark coat... they had found Coal dead in their backyard... appeared frail ...

Utah cities and counties looking to restrict hunting January 11, 2020 Salt Lake Tribune
... Hunters are increasingly stalking deer and elk near homes and recreation areas, such as Park City’s Round Valley and Huntsville’s Cemetery Point, that didn’t exist a generation ago.  Yet those cities have zero authority to ban or even regulate hunting on these lands, and some locally elected leaders want to change that to protect the public...

...   “My sister and wife ran over to him and told him again to get off our property. ‘You are on private property now, get off.’ [He was] walking around with a deer rifle trying to scare the deer up so he could kill her,” ... The doe named Sadee survives with a mark between the eyes. She’s spent time on the property since she was an orphaned fawn...

Utah's deer herds are struggling... don't be fooled by all the bullshit. Finding older age class mature bucks in UTAH to film is becoming almost impossible . Simply finding and filming a 5 year or older age class buck on public hunted utah lands is a joke. Even our beloved top tier trophy units are in trouble. We've become too efficient at killing our deer. The playing field needs to be leveled. OUR MULE DEER need a chance to rebound or they will be gone forever. We had healthy deer herds in the 70's and 80's... what happened. We can keep drinking the kool-aid or do something about it. January 6, 2020 Utah


... Miles Moretti, president and CEO of the Mule Deer Foundation, said Utah’s WRI is improving habitat for mule deer and all wildlife at a “landscape scale not seen anywhere in the Western United States.” ... Watershed Restoration Initiative projects ...

... Utah made history when it completed the first wildlife overpass in the U.S. in 1975 on I-15 near Beaver. Since then, around 50 wildlife crossings have been installed throughout the state... Around 6,300 deer and elk were confirmed to be killed in vehicle collisions in 2019 ... “Deer typically follow the same migration routes every year,” ...

... There were fewer than 250,000 deer statewide in the mid-1990s and more than 350,000 a few years ago. However, the numbers are starting to slide again and Jones estimated that the mule deer population dropped again in 2019... In some areas, it’s 15 to 17 bucks per 100 does; in others it’s 18 to 20 bucks per 100 does, while it’s 25 to 35 bucks per 100 does in seven limited-entry units... the plan approved Thursday will carry through 2024 ... read the plan ..,

...  they’re blindfolded, restrained and airlifted in orange bags to Fielding Garr Ranch on Antelope Island, where biologists and a team of other staff with the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources check various aspects of each animal’s health... One buck had lost several teeth, probably in the process of being captured. The teeth were hanging out of its mouth...

DWR approves new mule deer hunting guidelines November 12, 2019 Utah, Daily Herald
... a new management plan for hunting mule deer... Jones suggested continuing to manage general season hunting with a ratio of 15 to 17 bucks per 100 does on 11 units and 18 to 20 bucks per 100 does on 18 units... The guidelines were influenced by a survey of 2,055 randomly selected local hunters...

... “Even though the pinyon-juniper does provide a bit of value to wildlife," said Daniel Eddington, the habitat conservation coordinator for the division, "that sagebrush grass and forb community provides a lot of habitat for mule deer that are wintering...

... The doe was trapped, unable to move and injured... she began to pet the deer’s nose... eventually, the deer even allowed her to start removing the wire... “Let me get my bolt cutters and cut that off okay?” a man could be heard ...

... 1,215 violations and 102 illegally killed big game animals—including moose, bison, black bear, deer, elk and pronghorns... Utah’s Turn-in-a-Poacher hotline (1-800-662-3337) ...

Cache Valley, Outlook on this year's deer hunt, reduction in tags October 11, 2019 Utah, Herald Journal
... In Cache Valley deer numbers rebounded in 2018 from a harsh winter in 2017, but then had higher than average fawn mortality last winter... residents wanted less crowded hunting conditions. Wyoming is also seeking input this year on how to reduce crowding in mule deer hunting units...

Utah Hunting Tidbits for Deer Season October 10, 2019 lakepowelllife
... Utah Division of Wildlife Resources biologists estimate that there are just over 370,000 mule deer in Utah, which is about 100,000 additional deer than were in the state in 2011.  “Over the last three years, we’ve had the highest deer numbers in Utah in 25 years,” ... With the wet spring, habitat has flourished ..,

Baiting big game is legal in Utah — for now. But is it right? October 7, 2019 Utah, Salt Lake Tribune
... Most Western states, including all of Utah’s immediate neighbors, ban or restrict baiting big game ... baiting congregates deer in unnatural ways, increasing the chances of spreading disease, according to wildlife biologist Brock McMillan, a Brigham Young University professor who serves on DWR’s mule deer committee...

Fall archery deer, elk hunts in progress, expectations August 29, 2019 Utah, Daily Herald
... Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (DWR) biologists estimate that there are just over 370,000 mule deer in Utah, which is about 100,000 additional deer than were in the state in 2011... the highest deer numbers in Utah in 25 years ... A lot of that is due to good habitat work and climate.” ...

Looking Forward to Utah's 2019 Elk, Deer Hunt August 23, 2019 Utah, Elk Network
... According to the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (DWR), there are an estimated 80,000 elk currently in Utah. The DWR management plan involves managing for just over 79,000 elk so “we are at our objective for elk statewide ..,

... DWR surveys indicate the state has 2,700 mountain lions, more than double the total in 2007... Cougars’ population growth tracked with gains in Utah’s mule deer herds, said Darren DeBloois, DWR’s game mammals coordinator..,

Don't feed the deer, especially in Pleasant Grove August 22, 2019 Utah, Daily Herald
... They are now ready to begin the process for the Urban Deer Control Plan, which is aimed at reducing the population of urban deer.  “One of the requirements of that program is that we enact an ordinance making it illegal for people to purposefully feed or bait wild deer, elk or moose,” ...

... Utah Division of Wildlife Resources biologists estimate that there are just over 370,000 mule deer in Utah ... an estimated 80,000 elk ..,

... The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources wants to increase the number of hunting permits to 678 (out of about 2,700 cougars in the state) for the 2019-20 season... to help stave off declines among mule deer and bighorn sheep..,

...  Mule Deer are continuing to lose ground for a variety of reasons, including the development of the East bench. Their winter habitat is depleting due to the Juniper Trees in those canyons...

... Earlier this year, the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources ended transporting trapped deer to new locations because of concerns of spreading Chronic Wasting Disease commonly found in deer, elk, moose and other animals...

... this rare antlered doe...  “There’s more bucks on that unit [where she lives], and that kind of allows hunters to be a little bit more selective with what deer they are harvesting, and so a deer with antlers that size wouldn’t even be close ...

Southern Utes can protect wildlife corridors June 30, 2019 Utah, The Durango Herald
... early people knew what recent science has confirmed: many species of wildlife – including bighorn sheep, elk, pronghorn and cutthroat trout – need to move between different habitats in order to survive... Tribal leaders are on the forefront of collecting data and developing management practices to enhance migration corridors...

... In the post, deputies plead with the public to “not let these poor animals suffer!” ...

Utah Wildlife Board approves 2019 big game hunts June 5, 2019 Daily Herald
... statewide deer population increased slightly in 2018, bringing the total to 372,500 deer in Utah. “The increase was primarily due to the growth of deer populations in the central and northern portions of the state...,

... officials think the deer died from disease and starvation... deer come to the area seeking food but become sick after eating trash blowing from the landfill...

... Deer come to the landfill each winter seeking food then fall ill after ingesting plastic and other toxins ... One photo shows dozens of decaying deer carcasses mixed with trash ...

... The idea of a UDOT staff member, the device uses radar to detect wildlife near the road and then sends a signal that triggers LED lights on a “deer caution” sign to alert drivers...

... “I have seen deer and elk move back into a burned area in the fall following a fire in the spring.” ...  low-elevation fires can have negative impacts if they burn sagebrush areas, which don’t recover from fires as well. Those areas are typically where deer and elk range during the winter months...

... Periodic severe winters, notably those of 1983-84,and 1992-93 have occasioned drastic winter deer losses... populations suffered catastrophic losses during the winter of 1948-49, arguably the most severe winter in recorded Utah weather history..,

... Almost 100 deer have been hit and killed in the past four years by vehicles driving along a mile-stretch of the highway ... decided to install radar-equipped signs along the road to alert drivers of passing deer..,

Utah Wildlife Board approves 2019 big game hunts May 3, 2019 Utah Division of Wildlife - Utah.gov
... DWR said that the statewide deer population increased slightly in 2018, bringing the total to 372,500 deer in Utah. "The increase was primarily due to the growth of deer populations in the central and northern portions of the state. The total statewide deer population increased by about 8,850 animals." ..,

...  the disease has a low prevalence rate in Utah deer populations compared to neighboring states like Colorado and Wyoming...

Mule Deer Migration April 30, 2019 Utah, lakepowelllife
... Deer had a 92 percent survival rate this past winter... Mule deer herds in southern Utah are migrating to their summer ranges ..,

... The few cases recorded in Utah have mainly appeared in the northeast and southeast regions bordering Colorado, according to the DNR.  Across that border, the situation is much worse... “The feeling is that it’s spreading, and we really don’t know how to stop it,” Travis Duncan, a spokesman for the Colorado ...

... a buck deer valued at more than $8,000 was killed in Mooney's backyard, according to charging documents... sent photos to a few friends of the deer. One individual received an image of the deer deceased in the bathtub," ...

... Despite the harsh winter, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources biologists say that adult deer survival is currently at 92% statewide... Average survival rates of the deer are reported in central and southeastern Utah. Northern Utah has below-average survival rates, with the highest mortality rates  ..,

Utah DWR announces proposals for 2019 big game hunts April 2, 2019 Outdoor Wire
... Biologists said that the statewide deer population increased slightly in 2018, bringing the total to 372,500 deer in Utah. “The increase was primarily due to the growth of deer populations in the central and northern portions of the state,” Jones said. “The total statewide deer population increased by about 8,850 animals [about 363, 650].” ...

This was an amazing day with the Mule Deer Foundation family! We had a great morning planting 3500 sagebrush, bitterbrush, and serviceberry in the wintering grounds of the Middle Fork WMA in Utah. What a great turn out! 48 Volunteers - March 26, 2019 Utah


... During the winter, there is an increase in wildlife along the roadways, primarily due to big game animals migrating to lower elevations in search of feed ...  there were approximately 10,000 wildlife/vehicle collisions in 2012 ...

... “They are starting to die from malnutrition and we need this snow to melt off so they can get to green vegetation. In some areas, we have really good winter range and they haven't lost weight as quickly,” Brock McMillian, BYU professor ...

Applying for big game hunting can be complicated January 30, 2019 Utah, The Herald Journal
... Utah offers hundreds of tags for auctions ... can cost $1,000 for a cow elk or over $300,000 for some mule deer hunts... There are now companies whose sole purpose are to help hunters go through the application process in a manner that gives them the best odds of receiving a tag ...

Tradition of winter elk-viewing rides continues at Hardware Ranch January 7, 2019 Utah, The Herald Journal
... Annual elk-viewing rides are underway at Hardware Ranch Wildlife Management Area in Blacksmith Fork Canyon... 15 miles east of Hyrum in Blacksmith Fork Canyon...

Fences should protect Utah wildlife January 3, 2019 The Herald Journal
... Work conducted by Utah State University in 2006 found that for every 2.5 miles of fence next to roads, one big game animal per year died because of the fences presence. August was when the largest number of deer, elk, and antelope succumbed to these fences as this is the time of year when fawns were weaned...


Utah Deer:   The state estimated a deer population of 372,500 in 2018 and 2019, up from about 363,650 in 2017.  Mule deer numbers appeared to be falling in 2019 and 2020 due to the 2018 drought and harsh 2019 winter.  The state increased cougar hunting quotas and reduced deer permits in response for 2020.  The state estimated 375,000 deer in January, 2017, down from 385,000 in 2016.  A hard 2018-19 winter but deer survival was relatively good with 92% alive into April.  Severe drought in 2018 is reduced deer and elk populations.  About 384,000 deer in 2015 after the fall hunt with about 23 bucks per 100 does. The harsh winter of 2016-17 reduced populations in some areas.

Mule Deer Population

Year   Mule Deer
Link to SourceEstimate
2015355,600
2016384,650
2017374,450
2018363,650
2019372,600
2020319,150
     The 2018 and 2019 target sex ratio was 15 to 20 bucks per 100 does. About 21 bucks per 100 does in 2016, higher than the state objective in 2016 for most units of 18 to 20 per 100 does. 2015 Herd Status. Mule deer buck permits increased for 2016. Lots of rain in spring of 2015 provided food and helped keep the deer population at around the highest level since the 1990s. DWR estimated 355,600 deer in Utah after the hunts in 2014, an increased over the estimated 332,900 mule deer in Utah after the hunts in 2013, 318,000 in 2012, 286,000 in 2011, 289,000 in 2004 and 322,000 in 2000 - post hunt. Recent mild winters have brought the population back during the last few years after a long downward trend of over 40 years.      DWR comments that "better habitat and other efforts like highway fencing, wildlife underpasses and predator control have also played a role in the rebound." Harvest data Hunter success about 30 percent. The state issued 86,550 deer permits in 2015, 84,800 in 2014, 84,600 in 2013, and 79,066 in 2012 for a success ratio of 37 percent with 29,411 deer harvested. Populations have been climbing since the hard winters of 2007 and 2008. An estimated 50,000 deer hunters in 2015. Hunter success rose from 37 percent in 2013 to 43 percent in 2015. 
     About 19 bucks for every 100 does in 2014, up to 21 per 100 in 2015. Only about 8 bucks per doe in 1995, as the population was falling. Although many state deer management strategies include the goal of balancing demographics to maintain good herd health, age and sex distributions similar to a wild herd, the DWR was targeting a buck-to-doe ratio of 15 to 20 bucks per 100 does. In 2013, the ratio was estimated at 19 bucks per 100 does. The target is designed to maximize short-term herd growth, allowing hunters to take as many bucks as possible, assuming that one buck can impregnate multiple does. Recent research indicates this strategy may be unsustainable. Buck-to-doe ratios were below state objectives in many areas in 2013.   Fall 2012 fawn survival was 65 per 100 does.
     Chronic Wasting Disease was first discovered in Utah in 2002.   In 2019 a reported 16 positives.
     History  In 1908 the deer season was closed to protect the herd from over hunting. The season reopened in 1913 with a bucks only regulation to help increase the population. Although the rule remained in effect until the 1950's, limited harvest of does began in 1934.  A catastrophic winter in 1948-49 decimated the deer herd.  The deer harvest peaked at 132,000 in 1961. In 1975 the state reinstated the bucks only rule to bolster the declining population. Another devastating winter in the 1983-84 significantly reduced the herd. "Following several years of drought and an unusually hard winter in 1992–1993, it was evident that Utah’s deer herd could no longer sustain unlimited hunting opportunity, and in 1994, buck deer permits were capped for the first time." From State Management Plan [PDF] The loss of key winter range has contributed to the decline of the mule deer population. Also see Mule Deer: A Handbook for Utah Hunters and Landowners
     Utah built the first wildlife crossing in North America in 1971.  
     Elk  About 80,000 in 2019, fast growing population in Northern Utah.
     Moose  Estimated at 2,600 in 2017, down from 3,500 in 2005.   Nearly hunted to extinction by around 1906 until a ban on hunting.
     Cougar population estimated at 2,700 in 2019.  At 2,000 range to 4,000 in 2018.  At 
1,900 to 4,000 in 2017.  At 2,500 to 4,500 in 2015, based on available habitat population models, although the population is thought to be growing. 

Report poaching:   Call the poaching hotline at 800-662-3337. callers can remain anonymous.  Email turninapoacher@utah.gov
    What to Do If You Find a Fawn


Mule Deer: Since 1922, the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), WAFWA is particularly concerned about mule deer, a species that lives in every North American habitat except for the tropics, arctic and extreme deserts. Mule deer numbers and distribution have been declining throughout the West since the latter third of the 20th century. To address this concern, the Mule Deer Working Group was established at the midwinter meeting of WAFWA in 1998. The group was charged with finding “solutions to our common mule deer management problems,” expanding “cooperative research and management in the Western states and provinces,” and sharing information with agency directors and administrators on mule deer issues."

Image below shows hunters afield and deer harvest for Utah from 1925 to 2014, data from 2014 Big Game Report [PDF].  Double click on image to enlarge.

"Mule deer thrive in early successional habitats, where forbs, grassy plants and shrubs dominate. These environments are not as stable as forest habitats, and they rely on fire or some other type of disturbance to return them to an early successional stage. If they are not disturbed, they eventually become more stable plant communities dominated by trees and large shrubs. Tree-dominated habitats offer mule deer a place to retreat from severe weather, but these areas offer very little in the way of food. That is why it is important to provide mule deer with a mosaic or pattern of habitats that can provide food, cover and water."




Time Lapse Photography of Deer Using Crossing Structure -- Double click for full screen