Non Lethal Deer Population Control for Urban and Suburban Environments

Why consider alternatives to lethal population control: Cities in the U.S. relying on urban deer culls are about equally divided between using sharpshooters and bow hunters, approaches that raise public safety concerns.  Although bow hunting is becoming more popular, the Humane Societies of the United States and of Canada recommend against bow hunting to cull urban deer for reasons apparent in the video at right [more examples].  Even under the best conditions, a significant number of deer are likely to be wounded and not recovered by archers, 50 percent rates are reported in the literature, and death can take 30 minutes to 12 hours or longer. Costs for professional hunters average about $300 to $500 per deer, but vary widely. Although many hunters will not participate in an urban cull, considering it an extermination rather than a hunt, cities often find others willing to pay a license fee to participate. After a cull, however, the remaining deer produce more offspring in response to the increased availability of food [research support Light to moderate long-term hunting, as in many urban culls, does not change the long-run total deer population in an otherwise stable environment.  Also, other deer may migrate into the area, although suburban does have very small ranges and defend their territories, an advantage of having sterile does.

For example, after 10 years of an annual urban cull, the environmental manager for Wilton, Connecticut, concludes "If we harvest 300 a year it could take us maybe seven [more] years... But of course that does not include baby deer."  Rapid City, South Dakota, has been killing deer in the city since 1996 with unclear effect and at a cost of over $350,000, a program that has recently come under scrutiny. In Lewis Morris Park, New Jersey, an annual deer cull since 1996 produced the following effect: 63.2 deer per square mile in 1996, 65 deer per square mile in 2009. After 17 years of deer culling, the city of Stevens Point, Wisconsin, concluded the deer population was about the same and began looking for a more cost effective solution.  Cost analysis typically ignores this effect and the value of life. 

Also confusing the issue are the wide range of unsupported optimal deer density recommendations presented to the public as scientific management goals (deer density and forest regeneration) and the concept that deer culls can generally be used to reduce the risk of Lyme disease, contrary to most of the current research. This Guide to Urban Deer Management contains links to urban news by state giving some history of management efforts, recent efforts in non-lethal control appear below.

Non Lethal Control Methods:   In Ashland, Oregon, a change in the fencing ordinance allowing homeowners to build higher fences and a ban on feeding deer resulted in a large reduction of the town's deer population. Fencing is very effective, but can be expensive.  Fencing and deer repellents. The city of Sequim, Washington, received a state grant to fit their elk with GPS collars with “virtual fence” capability. When alerted, volunteers will be called on to drive the offending elk away from designated areas.  Dalton Gardens, Idaho, is considering the use of paintball guns to haze deer in the town, an idea that has also been proposed in Avon Lake, Ohio.  Although some have proposed reintroducing predators to control urban populations, safety concerns generally make this unfeasible, but the effects of a predator (known as the ecology of fear in the literature) can be safely reproduced by using herding dogs.  Some Canadian towns are experimenting with using herding dogs to manage areas where there are complaints about too many deer. Some wildlife experts suggest that more restrictive leash laws for dogs in recent years have been a factor in encouraging deer to migrate into urban areas and that trained dogs can be used to push deer out of areas where they are causing problems. A well trained herding dog, such as a border collie, can be an effective and safe deer manager.  Dogs for Deer Management.   In all cases, decision makers should be aware that they are designing the future herd based on the management method. 

(more information at link above)

Deer Contraception
Gonacon, Spayvac a PZP (porcine zona pellucid)

Cost per deer can be in the two hundred dollar range, but will vary depending local labor costs, number of deer and related issues.  Birth control needs to be reapplied after a few years.  Success rates are often reported to be in the 90 to 95 percent range.  This approach generally has a lower risk of deer fatalities than sterilization.

Fertility control' can help manage wildlife June 19, 2014 Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Daily News
... Fertility vaccine also works in deer. Research by Tufts University scientists and others performed in three locations - Fire Island National Seashore in New York, the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Maryland, and Fripp Island in North Carolina - led to reductions in urban deer populations by 30 to 60 percent. The findings were published in Wildlife Research and the Journal of Zoo Wildlife Medicine by Allen Rutberg and colleagues...

... Under the protocols approved by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, in 2014 and 2015, highly trained staff from The HSUS will capture, ear-tag and administer a long-acting form of the PZP vaccine to approximately 60 female deer living in the Village. Treated deer will be monitored for fawns to determine vaccine effectiveness and longevity for two to three years after initial treatment...

Controlling deer populations October 1, 2014 Washington Post
Contrary to what the Sept. 30 Health & Science article “Cornell thought sterilizing deer would work. . .” indicated, Tufts University’s studies of the porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive vaccine showed that the treatments have stabilized or reduced three deer populations in the field... although testing on truly “open” populations of deer has been limited, nearly every study of movements of female deer in suburbs has found that adult females rarely stray far from home.
Hastings Mayor Swiderski: What to Expect During Deer Immunocontraception February 24, 2014 New York, 
... This weekend, we begin the deer immunocontraception study ... The darting professionals will wait until they have a clean shot at a still deer when the dart will hit the flank of the deer.... the professionals will tag both ears with very large and visible tags, carry out some measurements, and then inject the deer with the immunocontraceptive ... The deer will amble off with its new ear-tags and hopefully not calve new fawns in the subsequent two years...
     Hastings Mayor Says Deer Birth Control Project To Begin In Late February February 21, 2014 New York, The Daily Voice
... the Humane Society professionals will find them, take some measurements, and inject them with PZP ... The Humane Society team has darted over 3,000 animals between the two of them over the last 30 years without incident ...

Salida, Intern offers deer task force update January 10, 2014 Colorado,  Mountain Mail Newspaper
...   recommendations the task force provided ...  Recommendation 4: Birth control for urban does ...

SPCA wants deer cull off the table November 27, 2013 British Columbia, Victoria News
... SpayVac ... “(In Maple Ridge) there were 10 females and they had 12 (fawns). Five years down the road after they were treated, there was only one born instead of 60,” Fraker said. “These are typical results. That was a 50-times reduction in fawns being born.” ... Mark Fraker is a biologist and president of SpayVac for Wildlife Inc. and TerraMar Environmental Research

Round two for deer birth control plan on Bald Head February 27, 2014 North Carolina, Port City Daily
... The N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission ... permitted the operation, which allows the use of a drug called GonaCon to vaccinate the animals against reproductive abilities...  the cold, rainy weather was just one challenge that resulted in the mission–said to be the first of its kind in North Carolina, after several years of talk and study–only reaching eight females, not enough for the “immunocontraception” program to be truly successful...
     Now funded, Bald Head’s deer birth control program scheduled October 21, 2013 North Carolina, 
... The program is meant to reduce the need for lethal sharpshooting ... Friends of BHI Deer, a group of residents who’ve for years pushed the “immunocontraception” approach–involving an anti-reproductive drug injected into a number of female deer–has announced meeting its $50,000 private fundraising goal for the program’s first year...  a nonprofit wildlife management company called White Buffalo Inc. would handle the first-year work, immobilizing about 30 does by dart, directly injecting their hindquarters with the agent and fitting their ears with livestock tags for identification...

Contraception Project at Bald Head Island

Study: Bison birth control working on Catalina Island December 18, 2013 California, KCET-TV 
... a study just published in the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine reveals that artificial contraception can work to keep American bison from reproducing, apparently with no ill effects on the bison.... Before PZP, about two in three female bison would bear young each year. That dropped to one in ten the first year PZP was used, and around one in thirty the second year...

...  The Friends of the Bald Head Island Deer Program has raised $49,000 to fund the first year of a new program that injects the immuno-contraceptives drug GonaCon in certain female deer to manage the population on the island... Certain female deer will be given the drug in January of 2014.  Only a percentage of the female deer will be treated...

Harbor Springs begins using birth control to control deer park population September 18, 2013 Michigan, 
... only the second in the country to implement a darted birth control to regulate the population of a enclosed public deer park.  Newton, Mass., started using a similar method in the late 1990s in an effort to phase out a public deer park, according to the Humane Society of the United States ... Adult does will be darted with a immunocontraception vaccine called porcine zona pellucida (commonly called PZP) that will cause pig protein to cover the egg during reproduction and repel sperm... 

Westport, Town Searches to Limit Deer Population  September 5, 2013 Connectictut, 
... The Deer Management Committee, made up of seven Westporters ... Their draft report suggests ... emphasizing deer awareness in Westport’s Driver Education, and promoting increased fencing to keep deer off property. The report also proposes using Porzine Zona Pellucida, or PZP, immunocontraceptives to sterilize deer. The contraceptive program, developed by Alan Rutberg, a research-assistant professor at the Tufts-Cummings School for Veterinary Medicine ...
     Weston, Meeting to Discuss Alternative Deer Management Plans May 5, 2013 Massachusetts,
... Jay Kirkpatrick, inducted into the Wild Horse and Burro Exposition Hall of Fame for his success in controlling wild horse populations through birth-control drugs, told residents ...  the first deer were given the contraceptive, via dart gun, in 1995.  By 2005, the deer population on Fire Island had dropped by 70 percent, he said. “The deer haters love it, because there aren’t so many deer now, and the deer lovers love it because no deer were killed.” ...

Hastings, Volunteers ready to help Hastings deer birth-control project July 6, 2013 New York, The Journal News |
...The plan to use birth control on the deer has the approval of the state Department of Environmental Protection and the attention of several other New York and at least one New Jersey community watching to see if the plan works ... “Over 60 people have signed up and we’re beginning to organize into groups,” ...

Report: Birth control better for wild horses than BLM roundups June 5, 2013 Utah, The Salt Lake Tribune 
... A panel of independent experts is calling on the Bureau of Land Management to bring better science and more birth control to its beleaguered wild horse and burro program, which has removed thousands of animals from Utah and other Western states' rangelands in recent years. The National Academy of Science's National Research Council released a 451-page report that finds "business as usual" will be hard on both free-ranging equids and taxpayers, who foot the staggering bill of corralling and caring for 50,000 animals...

Bald Head Island, Plan solves deer issue through sterilization, GonaCon June 1, 2013 Nort Carolina,
... The conservancy received a permit from the state Wildlife Resources Commission and will be the first community in North Carolina to implement the non-lethal management program. ..."This drug requires two inoculations, and then they're sterile forever," said Suzanne Dorsey, executive director of the Bald Head Island Conservancy. "It's got over a 90 percent success rate in sterilizing the deer with two doses." ... GonaCon, a contraceptive developed by the federal Department of Agriculture... 

Bald Head permitted for deer birth control, GonaCon May 21, 2013 North Carolina, Port City Daily
... Officials with the Bald Head Island Conservancy (BHIC) and a group of property owners who’ve long fought for the “immunocontraception” method hope to begin darting deer with the control drug late this year or early next... The drug for the task is called GonaCon, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Wildlife Research Center and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

Hastings Trustees, Expert Meet To Discuss Deer Birth Control May 8, 2013 New York, The Daily Voice
... Deer birth control involves a vaccine called PZP, short for porcine zona pellucida, a pig protein that poses no risk to people, animals or the environment [Dr. Allen Rutberg] ... A deer is shot via dart gun to tranquilize it before the vaccine can be injected. The Environmental Protection Agency requires that the deer be tagged ...

... the problem with that is that game reserves have a finite amount of space... So many game reserves are opting for contraception. Some are vasectomizing elephant bulls. Others, like Makalali, are using birth control on the females. In many cases, they still let the elephants have some babies so as not to mess up herd dynamics, but birth rates are low, and there have been no behavioral changes...

... Right now, there are no contraception methods that meet all federal guidelines for park use so this part of the plan is uncertain, Petit said. If no means are developed, it may be necessary to shoot even more deer... The price tag over 15 years is $4.2 million....  It would reduce the density from 41 to 21 per square mile. ...

Effects of two porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive vaccines on ovarian activity in horses U Bechert, J Bartell, M Kutzler, A Menino, R Bildfell… Journal of Wildlife Management, 2013
... Three to 4 months after vaccination, 93% of SpayVac-injected mares ceased cycling; whereas all control mares continued to cycle throughout the study. Relatively constant antibody titers were reached by week 6 post-vaccination, although we found appreciable variation within treatment groups, especially 4–8 weeks post-vaccination. Based on our study, the SpayVac formulations impair ovarian function but do not affect other major organ systems, and could provide a safe and effective immunocontraceptive option for mares. 

... This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon™, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease ... Subcutaneous vaccination with GonaCon is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets.

Dog birth control shots could limit populations June 20, 2013 South Dakota, Ct Post
... Veterinarians plan to catch and inject 300 wild female dogs with a birth control vaccine that has worked on white-tailed deer, wild horses, wallabies and ferrets.  The two-year test using the government vaccine GonaCon is scheduled to begin in September on two isolated Indian reservations ...

Oak Bay, Deer meeting yields more decisions to make June 24, 2013 British Columbia, Victoria News
... One speaker, Susan Vickery of EARS Sanctuary in Coombs, advocated for and shared her efforts in testing out an immuno-contraceptive on her own herd of 40 rescued deer. Vickery offered sanctuary for some of the University of Victoria rabbits during its campus-wide cull in 2011.  In three weeks, Vickery was able to raise $80,000 in support funds for the rabbits and offered her services to now help find sponsors for the non-lethal contraceptive shots...

Avon Lake looks into new deer management April 20, 2013 Ohio, The Morning Journal
...  Mayor Greg Zilka. “In my eyes, if residents are still complaining, it’s still a problem.”  Zilka has contacted Tufts University in Boston to draft a proposal for using contraception to reduce the deer population. But that plan would require approval of state Wildlife officials, and that hasn’t happened in more than 20 years, Zilka said.  The city also will look at encouraging residents to fence in their properties, and the placement of cautionary road signs where deer are prevalent...

Don't kill the deer in Rock Creek Park February 1, 2013 Washington Post, Jay Kirkpatrick and Allen Rutberg
     As two scientists with extensive experience using fertility treatments to control wildlife populations ... One fertility-control vaccine, porcine zona pellucida (PZP) — which can be administered by shooting the animal with a dart — is safe for deer and for predators, scavengers and any humans who happen to consume venison from a treated deer; it is a natural protein that degrades in the deer’s body after injection, and if eaten, it is destroyed in digestion... PZP has reduced urban white-tailed deer numbers at Fire Island National Seashore in New York; controlled wild horse populations at Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Cape Lookout National Seashore in North Carolina; and slowed growth of the Tule elk population at Point Reyes National Seashore in California. And it has been used since 1994 to limit white-tailed deer conflicts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg...

Jay Kirkpatrick, Director of the nonprofit Science and Conservation Center in Billings Montana, has used darts to control horse populations for 24 years, and says that darting urban deer is far more effective than hunting them... “Suppose by some magical way, you went in and you reduced the population by 80 percent. Remove them, shoot them. You haven’t solved a problem, because the ones that are remaining behind are still going to breed.” Guns cost between $900 and $3,000. The Science and Conservation Center offers training in Montana for $200 per person, he said – though they waive that fee in cases of hardship. But once employees are trained, the Center sells the vaccine for $24 per dose, and darts cost $2.15.

A U.S.D.A. study concludes "We are confident that GonaCon vaccine will become a valuable addition to the tools used by wildlife professionals to manage populations of overabundant wild animals in settings where other methods such as regulated sport hunting cannot be applied." It has also been shown to reduce traffic collisions. Using a netting method requiring no tranquilizing drugs, wildlife managers in Colorado put radio collars on 20 deer and elk with no ill effect, a much more difficult process than injecting a contraceptive

Bald Head Island, BHI deer cull could wrap by week's end January 10, 2013 North Carolina, Port City Daily
...  the cull is targeting roughly 20 female deer to reduce the local herd’s population enough for a proposed birth-control program.... BHIC explained it is working in partnership with the village, and with residents opposed to the cull routine, to implement a non-lethal alternative. The proposal: “immunocontraception,” or the administration of birth control drugs to keep the population level... hope to administer by 2014 a drug called GonaCon ...

Hastings-on-Hudson, New York village looks to contraceptive to control deer population December 13, 2012 New York, FOX News
... volunteers will begin gathering preliminary research for the birth control project early next year... The project would be led by Tufts University veterinary expert Allen Rutberg...

Westport, Two towns take different paths in dealing with deer population December 2, 2012 Connecticut, Westport-News
As another deer hunt continues at Devil's Den in Weston, Westport's Deer Management Committee ... "It's a contraceptive program that's used by darting deer," said Susan Pike, the committee chairwoman. "We estimate (it) would cut our deer herd down by half within five years, where we wouldn't have to hunt, where we wouldn't have to overturn the ordinance."  Westport has long had a no-hunting ordinance in place... 
Westport May Test New Contraceptive:  Committee Seeks Accurate, Infrared Deer Count October 11, 2012 Connecticut, Westport Now
... A subcommittee report presented by Michele Lamothe, a veterinarian, described a PCP contraceptive vaccine expected to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency within three years.  Unlike other contraceptive methods, which are more expensive and require two applications, the vaccine, which causes does to create antibodies against sperm, only requires one application costing $80 each, Lamothe said.

State Port Pilot
After more than a decade of consideration, residents of Bald Head Island are seriously ready to administer birth control to the island’s deer herd, eliminating the need for periodic hunts.  ... Oakley said his problem with the lethal cull has nothing to do with hunting, as he grew up hunting deer in his native Georgia. The issue, he said, is that Bald Head Island is not a suitable place for gunfire, and bow hunting is messy ... “The change is that the state Wildlife Resources Commission is willing to consider this management option,” Dorsey said. “It would be the first in the state.” 

Harbor Springs deer to get contraceptives December 4, 2012 Michigan, Petoskey News-Review 
City manager Tom Richards has found a way to help manage the deer population at the Harbor Springs Deer Park: to treat the deer with contraceptives — administered by dart.   ... In talking with a local veterinarian and experts from the humane society, Richards arranged to have the does in the herd given long-lasting contraceptives. The contraceptives will be administered by a dart gun, and will last 2-3 years.  "This way, we can manage the population instead of having to deal with overpopulation," ...

Avon Lake to Test Contraception, Full text of proposed amendment to Avon Lake's hunting ordinance November 14, 2012 Ohio, Patch
...  a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach to managing the deer population is the most effective strategy ... a deer culling program has been in effect in the City of Avon Lake since 2004 ... Develop, in coordination with a university or research institute, a proposal which outlines a scientific research project and seek permission from the state to use contraceptives for scientific research on white-tailed deer within the municipality, and implement such contraceptive research project upon receipt of permission by the state...

... Avon Lake Councilwoman Jennifer Fenderbosch ...  first introduced the idea of birth control for deer in early spring of this year... with Tufts University and the Medical College of Ohio, who are studying the effects of PZP, a non-hormonal birth control dart for wild animals.  “The universities are interested in investigating the possibility of a long term birth control study of the white tailed deer in Avon Lake..." ... Fenderbosch said the Humane Society of the United States is paying for air fare, hotel and expenses for the Tufts group.

Essex County, Nearby deer needn't fear next year December 6, 2012 New Jersey,
 ...New Jersey, along with Maryland, are the states that allow immuno-contraceptives to be given to deer. Our county and virtually every other government in New Jersey and elsewhere that have sought to control the overpopulation of deer have rejected deer contraceptives. The procedure of locating the deer, tranquilizing them, capturing them and immunizing them with contraceptives is arduous to achieve — and costly... Here’s an alternative. Essex County officials should give pro-deer advocates a chance to determine the effectiveness of a citizen-driven vaccination effort...

Hastings Board to Submit Permit Application for Deer Immuno-Contraception June 7, 2012 New York, 
..."There isn't enough space in the village without residences to have a traditional bow-and-arrow cull," [Mayor Peter] Swiderski said....Two years ago ...(DEC) granted Swiderski a permit to do a net-and-bolt cull of deer ... When animal rights activist spoke out vehemently against the cull ... the board started over.... Hastings would work with Tufts professor Dr. Allen Rutberg, who is currently conducting studies on immuno-contraception to control suburban deer populations... 

Fair Oaks Ranch studies deer contraception November 21, 2011 Texas, San Antonio Express
... [from survey] “Birth control is the most accepted method of controlling the herd,” said Alderman Mark Anderson, chairman of the city's ad hoc deer committee. “And our residents are about to find out if it will work.” ... Mayor Cheryl Landman is now authorized to sign a two-and-a-half-year contract for not more than $90,000 with Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute for a study on whitetail dear migration, a scientific census count and the potential of contraceptive use in order to reduce or stabilize the deer population.

Not tonight deer: A new birth control vaccine helps reduce urban deer damage August 31, 2011
... GonaCon blocks a biological signal that triggers reproductive behavior in deer ... As day length decreases in autumn, the reproductive systems in these animals "turn on."..."Other birth-control vaccines using porcine zona pellucida (PZP) also can prevent deer from producing offspring, but PZP-vaccinated animals still exhibit mating behaviors," Goldade explained. He is with the U. S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service/Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) in Fort Collins, Colo., where GonaCon was developed. "That opens the door to dangerous situations in which males chase females across the highway. With GonaCon, however, vaccinated deer don't even try to mate," ....

Book by Allen Rutberg

Testimony from Allen Rutberg, a professor at Tufts University's Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine: The vaccine produced noticeable results in each trial, Gutberg said. On Fire Island, less than 20 percent of does that were treated produced fawns the following year. This trend was accompanied by a 50 to 60 percent decline in the local deer population during an approximately 10-year span. On Fripp Island, the one-shot vaccine had produced an 80 to 90 percent drop in fawning rates....Rutberg said the costs of deer birth control were not inconsiderable. While remote darting of the deer cost only about $80 in the Fire Island program, capturing each deer for vaccination and tagging on Fripp Island cost more than $500.

Loantaka reservation closed Wednesday for deer hunt October 1, 2014 New Jersey, New Jersey Online 
... The commission first allowed controlled hunts at its facilities in the early 1990s. The commission also experimented with a three-year contraceptive program beginning in 1997 that was deemed ineffective because it was too difficult to annually locate tagged deer and administer contraceptive shots... [time between shots is increasing, as is tagging technology]

Ruminant Rumblings May 19, 2011 New York Urban East Hampton StarBy Joanne Pilgrim | The East Hampton Group for Wildlife is advocating a pilot deer-contraception program. Durell Godfrey At a town board session on Tuesday, the East Hampton Group for Wildlife offered to raise money and help the ...Bill Crain of Montauk, the president of the group, and his wife, Ellen Crain, outlined a proposal for a pilot study through which 30 does would be vaccinated with a contraceptive made with a protein from purified pig ovaries, effective for three to four years, and 10 given a placebo. The does would be tagged so they could be monitored for four years to see if they give birth to fawns. Ms. Crain, a professor of pediatric and emergency medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, said research shows that hunting does not adequately control deer populations, and nationwide studies show that most Americans oppose hunting. The contraceptive vaccine that could be used on the deer has proved to be safe and “not harmful to humans or to animals that eat deer,” Ms. Crain said, and it is used by the United States government to control herds of wild horses in the West. It would be provided for free by its developer, a veterinarian who would also offer his services to oversee an East Hampton pilot study. Dr. Jonathan Turetsky, an East Hampton vet, has offered to oversee care of the deer, Ms. Crain said. The program would have no cost to the town.

ROMANCE WITHOUT RESPONSIBILITIES: THE USE OF FERTILITY CONTROL TO MANAGE BISON ON CATALINA ISLAND CALIFORNIA. Western Wildlife Society Meetings, 2012, Calvin Duncan; Catalina Island Conservancy; PO Box 2739, Avalon, CA, 90704; 310-510-1299 x232;; Julie, L,king
We evaluated the cost, administration efforts, and efficacy of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for the contraceptive management of an introduced herd of American bison (Bison bison) on Santa Catalina Island, California. A roundup was completed in 2009 whereby 35 of the estimated 47 breeding age bison cows were temporarily restrained, ear tagged, and given an intramuscular inoculation of 100µg PZP mixed with 0.5ml of Freund’s Modified adjuvant (FMA) as a primer. The remaining 12 unmarked cows received the same PZP and FMA emulsion via field darting efforts completed in February and March 2010. As per PZP administration protocol, a pre-rut dose of 100µg PZP mixed with 0.5 ml of Freund’s Incomplete adjuvant (FIA) was administered intramuscularly to all 47 breeding age bison cows via field darting efforts conducted mid April through July 2010. The pre-rut darting efforts were completed during 12 daily attempts and required approximately 45 hours of field time. Through our monitoring efforts in 2011 we demonstrated that the contraception effort had successfully held the calving rate below the estimated annual mortality rate of 4%, and therefore proved to be an effective means of maintaining a stable bison population. 

Both distance-sampling and mark-resight methods indicated a decline in deer densities and fawn-doe ratios on Fripp Island in 2008. Between 2006 and 2008, deer numbers appear to have declined between 21-35% on Fripp and fawn:doe ratios have declined by 38-56%. Both measures remained roughly stable on the Hunting Island control site during that period. There is also a trend for increased male:female ratios over the course of the study on both sites, for reasons that are not well understood. - Allen T. Rutberg, Ph.D., Research Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental and Population Health, Tufts-Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine

Horse overpopulation addressed by locally produced wildlife contraceptive vaccine February 16, 2012 Montana, KTVQ Billings News
The vaccine has been used on wild horses and other species including urban deer for more than 20 years under FDA experimental use. "We didn't solve the cat and dog problem by creating more kill shelters. We did it with spay and neuter programs...A recent United States Geological Survey economics study indicates the vaccine could save almost $8-million dollars annually in the management of western wild horses.

Avon Lake, Ohio, Will Test Contraception
Avon Lake, Full text of proposed amendment to Avon Lake's hunting ordinance November 14, 2012 Ohio, Patch
...  a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach to managing the deer population is the most effective strategy ... a deer culling program has been in effect in the City of Avon Lake since 2004 ... Develop, in coordination with a university or research institute, a proposal which outlines a scientific research project and seek permission from the state to use contraceptives for scientific research on white-tailed deer within the municipality, and implement such contraceptive research project upon receipt of permission by the state...

How Immunocontraception Can Contribute to Elephant Management in Small, Enclosed Reserves: Munyawana Population as a Case Study 2011, PLOS ONE, Heleen C. Druce,  Robin L. Mackey,  Rob Slotow 
...  A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown...

Some Wildlife Agencies Not Willing to Even Allow Alternatives
Ogden Dunes, Protesters take aim against Ogden Dunes deer cull November 18, 2012 Indiana, Post-Tribune
... The deer cull has been a contentious topic since the town first applied for a permit from the Indiana Department of Natural Resources in 2011.... In August, the DNR rejected the town’s application for two options — deer contraception, and the trap and transfer of deer — while requesting more information on the four-poster insecticide method.

Some Misinformation
[comments from June 12, 2012 article in]
Wildlife Agencies sometimes provide the public with incorrect information about this option: For example. Tina Brunjes, deer and elk program coordinator for Kentucky Fish and Wildlife, provides the following advice to communities: "Birth control drugs cost $1,000 per deer, are not 100 percent effective and doses only last for two years." quoted from Dealing with Nuisance Deer in Populated Areas September 21, 2012 Kentucky, SurfKY News

While spaying can be expensive, perhaps $1,000 per deer, because of high labor costs, local volunteers can bring costs down.  A $500 per deer cost can commonly be achieved.  In many states, deer contraception is illegal.  Sterilization is typically 100 percent effective and only needs to be done once, but may result in the death or injury of a few deer.

Follow the the progress of Maryland's first deer sterilization program at Wildlife Rescue, Inc., great results and reduced costs. White Buffalo provides this service to communities.

HHS Seeks Birth Control... For Deer September 25, 2014 Maryland, 
... The NIH site in Maryland is a 500-acre research facility ... overrun with deer; in this case, overrun means an estimated population of thirty to forty... NIH is seeking a solution and seems to have settled upon birth control: specifically, ovariectomies.  Apparently thinking long-term, NIH is not looking for a contractor simply to perform the initial work, but one that can train NIH veterinary staff to perform the operations in the future: ...

... The committee, however, sees the merit of a non-lethal approach in its report.  Over the course of this year, the committee has met with researchers and experts on deer spaying, but for now said it simply will closely follow East Hampton Village’s planned doe spaying program this winter ...

... Sterilization definitely did decrease fawn numbers, and doe numbers also declined ... these population reductions were offset by increasing buck numbers...   the ligated [tubal ligation, not ovariectomie which is spaying] does were unable to become pregnant, they continued to produce chemical signals of readiness to reproduce — signals that can attract bucks from miles away ... See an explanation about why this result shouldn't deter other communities from sterilization

Group Raises Money To Sterilize Deer On Long Island, New York - September 19, 2014

East Hampton, Donors raise $100G for East Hampton Village deer sterilization September 4, 2014 New York, Newsday 
... The Village Preservation Society of East Hampton, a civic group, raised the money from more than 100 donors since mid-June ... The sterilization effort comes after a U.S. Department of Agriculture culling program on the East End, beset by lawsuits and protests by animal-rights activists and hunters, fell far short of expectations ...

Mt. Lebanon creeps toward decision on deer solution August 26, 2014 Pennsylvania, The Almanac 
... Discussion at the Aug. 25 meeting centered on the possibility of allocating $40,000 in unassigned fund balance to deer sterilization... Tony DeNicola, president of wildlife management consultancy White Buffalo, told her new research indicated a community may have to cull 90 percent of its deer population in the initial effort. Otherwise, breeding may soon offset any population reduction...

East Hampton, Board Supports a Deer Spaying Plan April 24, 2014, New York,  East Hampton Star · 
... The East Hampton Village Board gave spaying as part of a deer management program unanimous support last Thursday...  “You have to get this permitting process off the ground,” [Ms. Cunningham] said, “and you can only get it off the ground when you commit to doing the program.” ...
... “Statistics show that 50 percent of the herd must be killed each year to keep pace with the birth rate,” said the society’s chairwoman, Joan D. Osborne. ... Another method must be introduced to bring the herd to sustainable levels. We know that spaying is 100-percent effective at controlling reproduction and would be an easier method to employ in the village.” ...

... These days, eight out of every 10 deer sighted by Wildlife Rescue volunteers around Feinberg’s house have already been sterilized. They will never get pregnant again. And, unlike deer who are killed, sterilized animals will continue to occupy their half-mile ranges, discouraging other deer from moving in. Given those kind of results, The HSUS—which uses innovation and technology to develop humane solutions to wildlife conflicts—has embraced sterilization as an option for reducing deer numbers...

Fairfax City deer spaying update: 18 does sterilized, more next year February 17, 2014 Virginia, Washington Post 
... The program costs about $1,000 per sterilization, which is being paid for the first two years by Wildlife Rescue of Maryland... The program involves shooting the deer with tranquilizer darts, each equipped with a tracking device ... From darting to release took about 90 minutes per deer ... it is being tried .. in small communities in New York, California, Missouri and Maryland. Early results there seem to show a 10 to 15 percent population drop per year, with limited migration of new deer from outside the targeted area. 
... Fairfax City will be working with a contractor to humanely tranquilize and surgically sterilize does via a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove the ovaries... For more information on how you can help, please contact Enid Feinberg with Wildlife Rescue, Inc. at or 410-593-9944.
     Fairfax City will sterilize, not hunt deer December 12, 2013 Virginia, WTOP
... The City of Fairfax will be the first jurisdiction in Virginia to allow female deer to be surgically sterilized in an effort to control the animals' numbers...  Fairfax Mayor Scott Silverthorne ... "(With) archery, there was just too much evidence, at least for me, to get comfortable with the humane question." ...he's heard of cases locally and around the country in which a deer managed to live as long as several days after being shot with an arrow. 

Communities ponder deer sterilization program February 13, 2014 Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 
... in communities such as Castle Shannon and Mt. Lebanon ... sharp-shooting and bow hunting may not be the right answers for such densely populated areas... Green Tree manager David Montz called the proposed sterilization program "the least controversial measure that I've seen in 20 years." ... residents might accept the sterilization program because they understand the concept of spaying and neutering their pets...  another aerial survey should be done to make sure the problem is acute enough to justify the expense...

Fox News
...  White Buffalo ... hired to conduct sterilization programs in more than 10 states since 1995, including Rhode Island, Iowa, Michigan and Pennsylvania... Anthony DeNicola, co-founder ...  has more than two decades of experience in wildlife ecology [a Ph.D in Wildlife Ecology with a dissertation related to deer population control and many peer reviewed publications on the topic] ... "Everyone has an opinion and most of them are worthless," DeNicola said of his critics. "No one has ever done anything on this level." ... "You're looking at about $1,000 per deer," he said. "And in [Fairfax City], the cost will be closer to $500 per deer due to local veterinarians donating their time."

Throughout the last three years, more than 60 deer in the Phoenix area of Baltimore County have been spayed... "The procedure is actually less intrusive than when a dog or cat is spayed ..." says Enid Feinberg, volunteer president of the nonprofit group Wildlife Rescue, Inc., which is funding the experimental program... " ... we found that because the deer are no longer pregnant, they're no longer consuming the amount of food that they were. So the browsing and the food consumption has dropped tremendously without having to do any harm to the deer," ... The program initially cost about $1,200 to $1,300 per deer, but Feinberg says it's now down to about $500 per deer...

Mt. Lebanon, Lebo zeroing in on controlling deer October 12, 2013 Pennsylvania, The Almanac
... With sharpshooting, for example, deer are lured to specific areas with bait, then killed with a single bullet to the brain. The cost per deer would be somewhere between $200 and $400. Maddock said the downsides to this approach included negative public perception and legal limits on where firearms could be discharged... Sterilization ...would not involve firearms and could also reduce the long-term costs associated with managing the deer population...

Mt. Lebanon hiring firm to count deer February 7, 2013 Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh Post Gazette
... [Commisioner] Mrs. Fraasch has composed and posted online a four-page document, "Deer in Mt. Lebanon [PDF]," ... she expresses her opposition to hunting by rifle or bow, instead favoring sterilization by removal of does' ovaries as a viable option.  She cites a significant cost savings over the long term and mitigation of some hazards associated with culling...

Village of Cayuga Heights suspends deer-culling plan November 20, 2012 New York, Ithaca Journal
... the Village Board of Trustees announced that after sending consent forms to the owners of the approximately 900 land parcels that make up the municipality, owners of roughly 90 parcels said they would not allow culling on their property.  The board said that while this only constitutes 10 percent of the land in the village, it would limit the number of feasible sites necessary for the culling strategy to succeed.  As a result, the New York State Department of Conservation has approved the village’s request to increase the number of does it may sterilize from 60 to 145 ... 
Several does die in Cayuga Heights sterilization process January 16, 2013 New York, Ithaca Journal
The village’s deer population control program removed ovaries from 137 female deer in December ...The procedures sterilized more than 90 percent of the village’s deer population, Cayuga Heights Mayor Kate Supron said.  Two does died from attempted captures. One broke its neck in a drop net, and the second fell down a steep hillside after getting shot by a tranquilizer dart ...  Another doe died after it was released...The program cost taxpayers $148,315 ...

San Jose: Deer at the Villages to be sterilized January 22, 2013 California, San Jose Mercury News
 ...  a plan to use archers to thin the herd in 2007 was derailed after a week of angry protests. But a Villages spokesman said the current plan to relocate 30 animals outside of the community's eight miles of fencing and sterilize the does in the 170-strong herd is a humane solution to the growing problem.... Rebecca Dmytryk, president of the animal rescue group Wildlife Emergency Services, said ...  given the enclosed, isolated population at the Villages, sterilization is "probably a great way to go,"
     Village's deer controversy continues February 15, 2013 California, Evergreen Times
... the scientific collecting had not been completed by White Buffalo Inc., the wildlife management firm handling the sterilization ...  General Manager Darren Shaw ... reports that 99 female deer have been sterlized, 30 relocated and four have died.... "It's a total a total disaster," said resident Jack Young, a hunter and fisherman, who was out the first night when the deer were captured ... " ... We don't have a deer problem" ...

Lake Forest will not cull deer; Bannockburn will November 21, 2011 Illinois, Lake Forester
... “Our community implemented a unique program to trap, neuter and release deer in 2006 with the permission of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources,” said Highland Park Deputy City Manager Patrick Brennan. “That program has provided multiple benefits for years.”

Fair Oaks Ranch: Surgery seen way to control for deer October 24, 2011 Texas, Boerne Star
,,,City officials approached the wildlife research institute [Dr. Charles DeYoung of the Caesar Klebery Institute at Texas A&M] ... DeYoung said that surgical sterilization was the preferred method, but that a contraceptive vaccine was also an option ... during the discussion, DeYoung said ... more background information ... a six-person team .. would study deer movement and range size ... "Removing deer is not enough as that merely makes an opening for new deer to come in. At the same time, new fawns can easily come in... This is a first-time study of deer movements both within and out of the city limits..."

Deer-kill foes press the issue in Homer Glen November 24, 2011 Illinois, Chicago Tribune
The city [in 2003] ... launched a pilot project to sterilize deer, spending more than $159,000 to outfit an ambulance as a moving veterinary clinic and hiring teams to tranquilize, neuter and release 19 deer. The state did not renew the permit to continue the trial for a second year. ... Steve Mandel, who has served five terms on the Highland Park City Council said "I think what we did must have worked, but I don't think anyone wants to talk about it again."

Evaluation of a Trap-Sterilize-Release Program for White-tailed Deer Management in Highland Park, Illinois, 2002-2005 September12, 2005, by Nancy E. Mathews, Ph.D [Full article in attachment at bottom of page]
.... We found that sterilization can control the deer population in Highland Park at the goal population level of 5 deer per mi2, if we can capture and sterilize an average of 32% of the female population per year. Our computer model suggests that the long-term maintenance of the population will require sterilizing an average of 6 does per year. Sterilizing more females will result in achieving the population goal more quickly. The model projections suggest that the population will continue to grow initially and peak at 3.7 years, until the effects of sterilization halt population growth. There after, the population will decline and hover around the target density after 9.5 years.
     We evaluated the influence of sterilization on the behavior (home-range size and dispersal rates) of the sterilized and control deer. In general, deer used extremely small home ranges in this urban environment and there were no differences in either the home range sizes or dispersal rates of sterilized deer verses the control deer. Fawns used larger home ranges than adults, and home ranges were larger during the winter. Although the sample size is exceedingly small, we found that more treatment deer than control deer made exploratory movements out of their home range. There is also an initial indication that sterilized deer traveled farther and used larger home ranges than control deer.
     With respect to the efficacy of surgical sterilization under field conditions, we found that tubal ligation, by ventral laparotomy, provides a safe, humane form of sterilization with low mortality
in white-tailed deer. The ability to capture, chemically immobilize and perform surgery on wild deer, under field conditions was highly successful.

Officials Work To Spay Deer To Reduce Their Population « CBS Baltimore
Feb 14, 2011 ... Spaying to control the population of domesticated animals is being given a try in the wild. Contraceptive darts have been tried before in Maryland but they must be administered once a year. It takes money and time to control reproduction.
     The $50,000 spaying pilot has made for some strange bedfellows. Feinberg is an animal welfare advocate who has carried out a tireless campaign against what she sees as a state bureaucracy that is too quick to use hunting as an answer to deer problems. The professional she hired is Tony DeNicola, a biologist with a doctorate and a national reputation as a deer sharpshooter. The money is from the estate of Gerda Deterer, an animal rehabilitation expert who died in 2009. And the DNR — Feinberg's frequent adversary — approved the effort.
     White Buffalo can sterilize five to seven deer a day vs. shooting 10 to 15 a day. July 2007, Cornell University began a five-year, $500,000 deer management plan that used hunting and surgical sterilization to reduce the campus herd by 75 percent. On a 1,133-acre portion of the central campus, 77 does and fawns have been sterilized. On a patchwork of 2,544 outlaying acres, hunting is permitted and 181 deer of both sexes have been killed.
The results will be out next spring, but critics have dubbed the experiment as "Spay and Slay" and consider it a waste of money.
     In 2009, the wealthy St. Louis suburb of Town and Country decided to go a similar route and hired DeNicola's company, White Buffalo Inc., to kill 112 deer and spay another 100 at a cost of $150,000.

Are Wildlife Services Reluctant to Spay or Use Contraceptives?

Federal Wildlife Services makes a killing in animal-control business November 18, 2012 California, San Luis Obispo Tribune
A coyote is caught in a neck snare set by Wildlife Services trappers in Nevada. Wildlife Services trappers have killed .... "Geese, deer and feral pigs can destroy golf course greens, fruiting plants (and) lawns," the agency says.... Erick Wolf, CEO of a California firm called Innolytics, which developed a form of birth control for Canada geese and pigeons with help from Wildlife Services' scientists in Colorado... "All they want to do is shoot, trap and poison," said Wolf. "They don't want to consider anything else."

A common objection to relocation is that many deer perish as a result, since deer are flight animals and easily stressed by any constraint. A 2008 study in Texas where there had been significant experience with Trap, Transport, and Transplant concludes "reasonable survival rates can be achieved." (see research below). 

As the information below suggests, success varies widely depending on circumstances. Also, the potential of spreading Chronic Wasting or other diseases should be considered: Geography of Chronic Wasting.

Bountiful, Deer complaints remain high in Bountiful September 26, 2014 Utah, Ogden Standard-Examiner 
... In an ongoing effort to reduce the number of domestic mule deer within city boundaries, local leaders are finalizing an agreement with the state’s Division of Wildlife Resources, in which the state will help catch, transport and relocate deer... Approximately 30 deer were relocated earlier this year in a similar effort ...

Survival and Movements of Translocated White-tailed Deer in South Texas 
2008 Proc. Annu. Conf. SEAFWA, Aaron M. Foley, et al
Abstract: In south Texas, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) translocations have become a common technique for non-lethal means of deer removal with the implementation of a Trap, Transport, and Transplant (TTT) permit program. However, the effectiveness of TTT as a management tool has not been evaluated. We monitored survival, movements, and body condition of 51 adult white-tailed deer from two translocations to two south Texas properties, one of which was partially enclosed by a 2.5-m net-wire fence. Annual survival of all translocated deer was lower in the partially fenced property (64%) compared to the unfenced property (80%), but overall survival was similar to survival rates of adult native south Texas deer reported in previous studies (68%–74%). As expected, more deer left the unfenced property (52%) than the partially enclosed property (14%). Cumulatively, 40% of deer survived and remained on the release area after one year. Young (1.5–3.5 years old) translocated males had below average antler gain, body condition scores, and rump fat measurements 6–8 months post-release compared to resident males. Results of this study indicate reasonable survival rates can be achieved, but released deer may not remain in the vicinity of the release site and tend to have below-average body condition 6–8 months after release compared to native deer.

Deer herd launched from release 50 years ago August 30, 2014 Lousiana, Bastrop Daily Enterprise 
... “I recall back in the 1960s bringing a load of deer we had trapped down at Red Dirt National Wildlife Refuge south of Natchitoches. I stopped by my granddad Charlie Lyle’s home in Ruston to let him see what we were bringing to Lincoln Parish. I still remember him shaking his head and telling me he has lived in Lincoln Parish all his life and these are the first deer he had ever seen in this part of the state...

NMSU graduate helps restore mule deer population March 7, 2014 New Mexico, KTSM News Channel 9
...  New Mexico Game and Fish has implemented a deer management plan to relocate the excess deer from Silver City to other areas where deer populations have declined ... “The collars will notify researchers if the deer hasn’t moved for more than four hours, meaning it may be dead,” ...

Bountiful council favors non-lethal deer control February 22, 2014 Utah, Davisclipper
... This follows a short-lived effort about four years ago where about 16 deer were shot by DWR sharp-shooters ... people spoke in support of using non-lethal means ... conducting a non-lethal deer removal program using traps ... Deer are removed to a site in Tooele County... cost of removing deer averages between $400 and $1,000 ... Mortality averages about 50 percent ...

Nearly 100 mule deer being transported off Antelope Island February 6, 2014 Utah, Deseret News 
... Wildlife officers are using some careful techniques to help the deer pack up and move. A helicopter is used that can take up to four mule deer per load. The deer are blindfolded with their legs tied together, and they're put in a bag...  the new, careful techniques make Utah's first large-scale mule deer move possible...
     DWR to transport nearly 100 mule deer off Antelope Island February 4, 2014 Utah, KSL-TV
... The Division of Wildlife Resources is working to move nearly 100 mule deer off of Antelope Island this week in an effort to balance out the population before the food supply runs out... The deer will then be driven to parts of Southern Utah that have a much smaller population ...

Mule deer being captured and relocated in and around Silver City January 28, 2014 New Mexico, Silver City Sun News ·
... This is the second year the department has removed and relocated mule deer from Silver City and is part of ongoing population-control efforts that include population reduction hunts and trapping and moving deer.... The results of the study could lead to new ways for biologists to restore mule deer herds that are in decline ...

Eastern Band of Cherokee to participate in state park deer relocation January 8, 2014 North Carolina, 
... Morrow Mountain State Park will participate in a long-term project to relocate white-tailed deer from the park to reservation lands of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians ... Partners in the initiative are the state parks system, the N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission, biologists from Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee Fisheries and Wildlife Management program... 
     White-tailed deer ... find welcome on Cherokee tribal lands January 24, 2014 North Carolina, The News & Observer 
...  deer were a key part of Cherokee life and lore for centuries before the first European settlers arrived. The animals were plentiful across tribal territory that extended over what now are eight Southeastern states. ... Deer counts are estimated at no more than 12 per square mile on the Qualla Boundary today ... From the 1940s into the early 1980s, Wildlife Resources Commission employees corralled animals in deer refuges at Butner and in the Uwharrie Mountains, not far from Morrow Mountain State Park, and moved them into other parts of North Carolina.
     Piedmont Deer To Be Relocated On Cherokee Reservation January 8, 2014 North Carolina, WFAE
... biologists will begin tranquilizing deer in Morrow Mountain State Park and then relocating them to the reservation. They’ll try not to break-up families. “Just like anybody taking a move, if you have your family and folks with you, you’re going to be a lot happier,” ...

... white-tailed deer were nearing extinction in Indiana. To help combat this, in 1934, the Division of Fish and Game began to restock the population. The initial way they did this was by trapping 400 deer in Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Once trapped, these deer were transported to state and federal properties ...

Pronghorn at E. Oregon chemical depot relocated December 12, 2013 Oregon, The Columbian
... A helicopter herded 38 of the antelope-like animals into a corral trap at the Umatilla Chemical Depot on Wednesday, and the herd was later driven to a wildlife area about 300 miles south in Malheur County for release... A total of 37 pronghorn were released after the trip to the Beulah Wildlife Management Unit near Ontario — eight adult males, 22 adult females and seven young. One animal in poor condition was euthanized ...

Wildlife officials propose deer transplants across Utah October 31, 2013 Utah, Salt Lake Tribune
... "In certain situations relocating deer is the best for people and best for wildlife," said Scott McFarlane, private lands/public wildlife coordinator with the DWR... Two locations have been identified as the source for possible deer transplants: the urban herd in the city of Bountiful and the prospering herd on Antelope Island... "There is a 50 to 60 percent survival rate in the first year," ...  Justin Shannon, big game coordinator for the DWR...

... officers, equipped with tranquilliser equipment ... Trail cameras have been set up in bushland to track and trap the herd ahead of relocation ... A large animal trap has been set up to assist with the humane relocation of the deer...

Deer translocations to begin; assessment released January 29, 2014 Washington,
...  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will begin to translocate up to 35 Columbian white-tailed deer from Puget Island to the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer ... The final Environmental Assessment for the translocation and an accompanying finding of no significant impact is now available to the public...  at ...
       Relocated deer struggling to adapt at wildlife refuge August 18, 2013 Washington, Longview Daily News
... at Ridgefield ... As of late July ... a total of 13 relocated deer had perished, and seven of the 22 surviving deer have moved off the refuge ... “a very healthy and robust” coyote population on the Ridgefield refuge is responsible for about a third of the deaths ... According to the USFWS Environmental Assessment ... coyotes are a “major” obstacle to establishing a sustainable population...  one 2010 study conducted at the JBH refuge indicated that coyotes were responsible for 69 percent of deer mortalities ...
     Northwest Deer Relocation Mission Considered Successful, Despite 20 Percent Loss  April 18, 2013 Washington, Nature World News
... A mission to relocate endangered Columbian White-tail deer ... Jackie Ferrier, who manages the Julia Butler-Hansen Refuge near Cathlamet, Wash., said that as the project went on it became quite difficult to lure the deer into the traps in place for them because the deer had grown leery of humans.  “The deer were just plain not coming into the nets anymore ...
     Relocation of endangered deer a slow, dangerous process February 13, 2013 Washington, Longview Daily News
... Wildlife officials are in a race to move about 50 deer because they fear a badly eroded dike may soon break... using a combination of sedative darts, drive-netting, and drop-netting ... So far, biologists have captured an ideal mix of age and gender, and no animals or people have been hurt or killed ... “We’ve never really moved this many deer all at once in this short of a time frame,” said Jackie Ferrier, who manages the deer refuge ...

Relocation of Deer and Exotic Animals in Texas - August, 2012

Link to an August, 2012, Youtube video showing relocation of deer and exotic animals in Texas 

Pennsylvania Celebrates Century of Elk August 29, 2013 PGC News
.... Between 1913 and 1926, the Game Commission released 177 elk into Pennsylvania’s wilds. And the elk that live here today are the progeny of those animals.
A three-year trap-and-transfer program launched by the Game Commission in 1998 expanded the elk’s range from 350 to 800 square miles, allowing the herd to grow. 

Penticton, Deer relocation stopped in its tracks March 5, 2014 British Columbia, Castanet 
... a letter from the Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations at Monday's full house meeting. "It stated an incredible amount of red tape ... So we decided to drop the initiative because it would be too onerous ..."
        Penticton, Oh deer, you have to move February 4, 2014 British Columbia,
... The capture and relocation of deer in the city of Penticton, has moved a step closer to reality.After being presented with several options at Monday's meeting, the city council elected to go with a pilot program that entails partnering with the Penticton Indian Band...

DWR transfers mule deer to Millard January 16, 2013 Utah, Millard County Chronicle Progress
Fifty mule deer were removed from the Parowan front and transplanted to the Pahvant Range east of Holden on January 7 and 8...  According to Division of Wildlife Resources biologist Kody Jones there were too many deer in the Parowan area and plenty of open space in the Pahvant Range.  “We don’t normally do this, but with SFW funding it is worth a try. Our big concern is mule deer tend to go to the same places all the time. This is a big change for them; hopefully, they will take hold here,”

... the success of the deer trans-location in central Utah. SFW is providing 100% of the funding for this transplant and is partnered with the Division of Wildlife Resources and BYU to gather data and monitor its success. The outcome has been phenomenal and future transplants are in the works as a result of this study...

Feds considering emergency relocation of endangered deer December 3, 2012 Washington, Longview Daily News
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Monday proposed moving half of the estimated 100 deer [an endangered species]  off their Cathlamet-area refuge to other locations in Cowlitz and Clark counties ...  a dike that protects the refuge from the Columbia River could fail    ...“We have enough to move the deer. We don’t have enough to fix the dike." ... Doug Zimmer, a spokesman for the Wildlife Service ...

Cranbrook: Alternative to current cull February 3, 2012 Canada, Cranbrook Daily Townsman
... it has been my belief the deer should be transported. In 2002 I had the privilege of being part of a crew that translocated 50 elk from Elk Island National Park in Alberta to Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee. This trip was over 3,000 miles, taking 60 hours to complete and we were proud that these elk suffered no ill effects in this transfer. This makes me seriously question the biologists' claim that the mule deer would stress out to a fatal condition on a one hour, 50-mile trip... 

Lincoln City, Elk, deer increasingly a part of Lincoln City November 10, 2012 Oregon, Lincoln City News Guard
...  not a surprise to biologists with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Increasing development and decreasing habitat are forcing the elk and deer out into the open more frequently.... By capturing several lead cows over the years, ODFW was able to alter the patterns of the deer and elk to the golf course ... “We see movement in and out of the city from the north and the west of Highway 101,” said Doug Cottam, ODFW biologist.  “It doesn’t mean they aren’t still crossing, but the number has been decreasing and we are monitoring that.”

A brief insight into some of the work carried out by Pied Piper Animal Capture. Specialists in safe, humane live capture and remote treatment of large animals, small animals,domestic livestock and wildlife. - April, 2012

Republic responds to deer problem February 14, 2010 Washington, The Spokesman-Review
...  the Colville Confederated Tribes allowed the deer to be released on the reservation’s Hellsgate Game Reserve along the Columbia River. That was an important good-neighbor offering, Kujala said, since the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is picky about where deer can be transported... he caught and relocated 54 mule deer and three whitetails in Republic this fall and early winter. “If I had free reign, I probably could get the remaining 40 deer in about a week.” ...  Kujala was paid $14,000 to remove 57 deer. However, nearly half the cost was funded by a grant from the Mule Deer Foundation ... [by October, 2013, the city was again wondering what to do with its deer herd]

Animal control in Chicago translocated a doe and fawn from a suburban environment to an open space with no ill effects, many similar examples can be found in the "Deer in the News" sections on this site. In the Toutle River Valley of Washington State, 50 elk were successfully relocated to the Nooksack Valley. Toutle officials there coordinated with two helicopters and volunteers on the ground to herd the animals into a corral and then transport them to other areas.

40 spotted deer relocated for Chennai Metro Rail September 5, 2011 India,
CHENNAI: ...the Forest Department had translocated 40 spotted deer ... officials claimed that all the 40 were safe in the new environment.... Completing the task in four months ... “Deer have a soft heart and are sensitive. Some even die in fear when taken from one place to another,” said S Davidraj, forest range officer....“We appointed six people for this to get friendly with the mammal. We kept salt lick near the water spot, ...In an attempt to trap the mammal, 15 wooden boxes were made and the same grass, wheat and bran were kept inside; the mammal was trapped once it entered the box to eat....All the 40 deer were translocated to the new place in the similar manner. [also done in 1990s near Vandular]... 

Efficacy of translocation to control urban deer in Missouri: costs, efficiency, and outcome. (2002) Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 3, Autumn, 2002
Abstract: We evaluated the efficacy of translocation to control an urban white-tailed deer ... population in Town and Country (TC), Missouri. Captured deer (n = 80) were fitted with radiotransmitters...Annual survival was 0.30 ... for translocated deer and 0.69 ... for radiomarked resident deer that were not translocated. Mortality causes for the 55 translocated deer that died during the study were hunting (33%), capture myopathy (29%), poaching (13%), unknown causes (11%), roadkill (9%), and wounding from hunting (5%). Mortality causes for the 25 resident deer that died during the study were roadkill (68%), hunting (12%), unknown causes (8%), fences (8%), and wounding from hunting (4%). Post-translocation home range size increased ... and fawn recruitment by translocated adult females was higher ... than for TC resident deer. Cost per translocated deer was $387....

Survival of Black-Tailed Deer Following Relocation in California (1985), Mary K, O'Bryan and Dale R. McCullough, Journal of Wildlife Management 49(1):115-119 ... At least 275 deer were on Angle Island prior to relocation ... 215 deer captured .. Twelve died before relocation; two due to prexisting diseases, five to physical injuries, two to capture stress, and three to pre-existing poor condition ... Mortality was greatest during the first 2 months following relocation ... The first three know deaths .. all died of malnutrition .. analysis showed these animals were in poor physical condition ... All known causes of later deaths were attributed either to predators (3) or were human related (17). Thirteen of the human-related deaths were car kills. Cause of death of five deer could not be determined... Only 15% of the radio-collared Angel Island deer survived an entire year following relocation... Many relocated deer died because they failed to recognize hazards not encountered on Angle Island ...

A Connecticut guide to deer management cites the study above and concludes: "Survival rates of relocated deer are frequently low. The poor physical condition of deer from an overpopulated range predisposes them to starvation. Trap-and-transfer efforts in California, New Mexico and Florida resulted in losses of 85, 55 and 58 percent, respectively, from 4 to 15 months [p. 15]" The guide references the Texas study above, but does not provide any information about the relative success of that much more recent effort. The California case was an unusual effort to transfer deer from an island into a very different environment. 

The Connecticut guide does not report the low mortality rate from the study below, instead summarizes as follows: "A six-year study of translocated deer from the Chicago Metropolitan Area showed a higher annual survival rate of resident adults than for those translocated deer. Deer-vehicle accidents were the largest source of mortality among the translocated does and presumably resulted from unfamiliarity with the release site (18)" see page 16 

Post-translocation survival and movements of metropolitan white-tailed deer. (1990) Jones, J. M. and J.H. Witham. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18(4):434-441. Here are some of the conclusions of this study:
"Survival of translocated deer ... has been documented in other studies. Direct comparisons of these studies are complicated by differences between sites, methods of translocation, and methods of calculating and reporting survival rates. These data suggest, however, that the survival of translocated deer is contingent upon capture and handling procedures, the nutritional status of the animals, and the presence of decimating factors at the release site including hunters, vehicular traffic, predators, or a combination of these. ... Capture myopathy ... was presumably the cause of 3 (12%, 2 adults and 1 fawn) mortalities among our translocated does within 0.8 km of release site during the first month post-releast." (page 5)

Link to Youtube Video showing relocation of deer during the 1930s at Pisgah National Forest

State's deer restoration is amazing October 19, 2012 Arkansas, Log Cabin Democrat
... In the late 1930s, Arkansas had an estimated 5,000 deer — statewide. That number could be up a little from the mid-1920s when the restoration program began. Or maybe not.... It could not be done today. So many regulations have been added to our daily lives that a couple of fellows with a stake bed truck likely could not trap three or four deer in south Arkansas and move them to northeast Arkansas...

Deer Friendly,
Jul 24, 2012, 11:08 AM