Non-Lethal Deer Population Management for Urban and Suburban Environments
See below for the latest news updates

Deer Culls used to manage suburban deer create a public safety issue and provide only a short term solution, requiring a perpetual killing program.  Examples of the Perpetual, Annual Deer Cull.  Many people don't want their neighborhood deer to be slaughtered.  Although degraded habitat is a major cause for the decline of the U.S. deer population, suburbs often provide excellent deer habitat.  Deer are edge dwellers, living at the interface of the meadow and the thick forest.  A lush suburban habitat can support more deer, the carrying capacity, than a forest.  Communities wanting fewer deer can reduce the carrying capacity (see figure above) using fences, deer resistant landscaping and repellents.  Careful use of dogs or other deterrents can replicate the effect of a predator in a natural environment, keeping deer on the move and restricting their access to food.   Examples of non-lethal approaches, news below for contraception, sterilization, and relocation.  A ban on feeding deer is often a first approach, sometimes a required approach.  Also a deer population survey.

Deer respond to a cull with increased fertility, producing more twins and triplets, and a larger proportion of female fawns that will further increase the deer population -- the rebound effect in the figure above [research support] --compensatory reproduction, also observed in coyote populations Light to moderate hunting, as in many urban culls, does not change the long-run total deer population in an otherwise stable environment.  More dramatic culls, keeping the deer population at about 50 or 60 percent of the carrying capacity, achieves the maximum sustainable yield, the largest number of deer than can be killed annually.  Also, other deer attracted by available food may migrate into the area, although suburban does have very small ranges and migration rates will depend on local factors.  A sterile doe will discourage new deer from entering her territory, the "placeholder" effect, and eat food that would result in more fawns from fertile does. 

The result of a cull is a future, perpetual negative cash outlay for communities and lots of slaughtered deer.  Cost analysis of urban deer cull programs typically ignores the future cost of maintaining the program and also ignores the intrinsic value of the life of each deer.   The January 2018 issue of Wildlife Professional advises that it is a myth that wildlife populations need to be hunted or harvested to control populations [p. 28].  

Deer exterminators at work using tools of the trade: clover trap and bolt gun.


Deer culls using sharpshooters or bow hunters may not be feasible in suburban environments because of public safety concerns.  Bow hunting is becoming more popular, but even under the best conditions a significant number of deer are likely to be wounded [graphic examples] and not recovered by archers, 50 percent rates are reported in the literature.  Although many hunters will not participate in an urban cull, considering it an extermination rather than a hunt, cities often find others willing to pay a license fee to participate.  Professional sharpshooters improve public safety and kill efficiency, but costs run from about $300 to $1,000 per deer. At right a video of the trap and kill method used by many deer exterminators. 

Confusing the public debate are the wide range of unsupported optimal deer density recommendations presented to the public as scientific management goals (deer density and forest regeneration) and the concept that deer culls can generally be used to reduce the risk of Lyme disease, contrary to most of the current research. This Guide to Urban Deer Management contains links to urban news by state giving some history of management efforts.  In all cases, decision makers should be aware that they are designing the future herd based on the management method.  
Deer Contraception

Products: Gonacon, Spayvac a PZP (porcine zona pellucid)  Cost per deer can be in the two hundred dollar range, but will vary depending local labor costs, number of deer and related issues.  Birth control needs to be reapplied after a few years, up to six years for Spayvac, but the time is being extended as the technology develops.  Success rates are often reported to be in the 90 to 95 percent range.  This approach generally has a lower risk of deer fatalities than sterilization.  An article from HSUS.  A private effort to experiment with contraception in British Columbia. The U.S. Humane Society provides this service, contact information and an example proposal.  The nonprofit Science and Conservation Center in Billings, Montana, has many years experience working with horses, deer, and other animals.   On July 6, 2017, the EPA approved an application to register ZonaStat-H, a fertility control vaccine that will provide a humane management tool for managers of deer populations.

News

... the program, intended to test administration of a birth control vaccine, had been expanded to include a surgical component. The program had been scheduled to start in February and will now start sometime in 2019 ... Village trustees are also considering changes to village code that would permit high deer fencing ...

Paula Gillikin Keeps Watch Over Wild Horses April 30, 2018 North Carolina, Coastal Review Online
... The [horse] herd population, currently around 30, has had some ups and downs in the decades since but is stable now because of Gillikin and a birth-control method called immunocontraception... While working on a white-tailed deer immunocontraception project in South Carolina with her adviser, Dr. Allen Rutberg from Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University near Boston, where Gillikin earned her master’s in animals and public policy ...

Contraceptive vaccine planned for Oak Bay deer April 10, 2018 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... The program is “ground-breaking” and the first time in B.C. and Canada that the immunocontraceptive vaccine, Zonastat-D, would be used in a small, contained urban setting to manage deer ...  working with a laboratory in the hopes of developing a vaccine that is effective for five to seven years ...

Delafield establishes management committee to focus on reducing deer population March 20, 2018 Wisconsin, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
The committee will recommend deer management plans to the council ... It could also recommend contraceptives to maintain the population once it is culled...

Oak Bay, BC, moves ahead with experimental deer control program February 23, 2018 British Columbia, CBC.ca
... Zonastat-D was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 2017. Huxley said if the project gets provincial approval, Oak Bay will be the first community in Canada to use the drug on deer.  "This immuno-contraception is also being applied to wild horse populations in Alberta," ...

Wild horse feeding stations aim to help protect animals December 18, 2017 New Mexico, Carlsbad Current-Argus
... a feeding station for wild horses that is equipped with the capability for remote injection of contraceptives. This patent-pending method is conducted with remote delivery. After the horse has placed itself in the proper position, an operator nearly 300 miles away is able to dispatch the injection via video surveillance and controls...  can also be adapted to feral dogs, feral pigs, deer ...

... Around 10 years ago, the city introduced a bow and arrow deer hunting season to try to control the growing population but it hasn't been working, so now are considering a deer birth control program...

Oak Bay wants more doe from province November 16, 2017 British Columbia, Victoria News
... “The province is making sure this follows a very, very strong scientific rigour. They are moving away from culling and now supporting other options like trans-location and immunocontraceptives,” said Steve Huxter, project manager of UWSS. “It is new to them so they are demanding a high level of confidence in what we are doing.” ...

Head of the Harbor, Village considers allowing dart guns to control deer population July 16, 2017 New York, Newsday
... trustees decided last year to pursue nonlethal means of population control and contacted researchers from the Humane Society of the United States and Tufts University exploring use of porcine zona pellucid, or PZP, a substance derived from pig ovaries that uses an animal’s own immune system to prevent pregnancy in wildlife populations ...

EPA gives thumbs up on vaccine to manage deer populations humanely July 11, 2017 HSUS
... , the Environmental Protection Agency has approved the registration of the immunocontraceptive vaccine, Zonastat- D, for the management of deer populations. Similar to the Zonastat-H vaccine, whose use in the humane control of wild horse populations is well established and effective ... When used properly, PZP reduces fawning rates by 85 to 90 percent...

... looked into the possibility of using salt licks containing birth-control chemicals... don't have long-term health effects on the deer ... Some reports say the salt licks are harmless to people, Vancheri said, but other studies question whether droppings left by deer that consume salt licks will damage the soil and possibly cause other health issues...

... "What we hope to do is use an immuno-contraceptive that's a long-term. If we could develop the vaccine properly, it could last for as long as four to five years. This would be a much more efficient way of reducing population levels." ... Steve Huxter of the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society.

Research project will see deer fitted with GPS collars March 17, 2017 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... The provincial government is giving Oak Bay $20,000 to outfit 20 deer with GPS tracking collars and install 40 motion-sensor cameras to photograph the animals as they wander its trails. This is the beginning of a plan to reduce the number of deer through the use of birth-control drugs...



Sterilization

While spaying can be expensive, $1,000 per deer, because of high labor costs, local volunteers can bring costs down.  A $500 per deer cost can be achieved.  In many states, deer contraception is illegal.  Sterilization is typically 97 to 100 percent effective and only needs to be done once, but may result in the death or injury of some deer . This field surgery requires more supplies and equipment than contraception so easier access to deer such as through small roads becomes an issue.  Tubal ligation requires less intervention than spaying or ovariectomy, but will result in does going into heat which may attract bucks into the area.  Ovariectomy avoids this problem.  
Follow the progress of Maryland's first deer sterilization program at Wildlife Rescue.  A recent case example from New York.  A program just getting started in Clifton, Ohio.  A website with video of the sterilization project in San Jose, California, where the deer population has declined more than desired.  The project is described in this peer reviewed paper which also investigates an anomalous result from a sterilization project at Cornell.  

News

State rejects Saddle River's plan to sterilize deer May 12, 2018 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
... The Community Based Deer Management permit application to capture then sterilize female deer was formerly rejected May 3 by the Division of Fish and Wildlife “based on the low likelihood of success” ...

   This link contains details of the deer sterilization and cull in the city of Ann Arbor, Michigan

... After a voters were asked whether they preferred lethal or non-lethal deer control measures in 2016, the council asked Cerf to come up with the non-lethal plan because a majority of voters preferred that option... “The deer will then be transported to a separate site where they will be spayed.” ...

...The bill to ban wildlife sterilization in Michigan was recently changed to allow Ann Arbor to continue its deer sterilization study through 2020.  The proposal is now in the hands of the Senate Natural Resources Committee.  It will need a hearing, a committee vote, and a full senate vote before it goes to the Governor. You can follow the status of the bill at www.mileg.org...

A status update on Staten Island's biggest projects and toughest challenges April 25, 2018 New York, City & State
...controversial $3.6 million plan to sterilize Staten Island’s growing deer population seems to be working. With no natural predators in Staten Island and migration from New Jersey, the population grew from a documented 763 in 2014 to an estimated 2,000 last year. Two years into the unique program, the deer population declined 8 percent in the past year, while births were also down 50 percent...

Michigan House: No future deer sterilization for Ann Arbor April 17, 2018 Michigan, Detroit Free Press
... In a 69-40 vote on Tuesday, lawmakers passed a bill prohibiting the state Department of Natural Resources from issuing more sterilization permits until April 1, 2022...

... the Staten Island deer population has dropped 8%, city officials told the Daily News — crediting an oft-mocked program to perform vasectomies on male deer ...  having vets perform a surgery that takes just a few minutes ...  the number of baby Bambis appearing on Staten Island has decreased by more than half ...

... the city has performed vasectomies on 1,154 of Staten Island's male deer population ... there were more deer on Staten Island than anticipated, including more bucks in need of vasectomies ... the city has spent roughly $2,879 on each deer ...

Ann Arbor, See 2018 trail-cam photos of Ann Arbor's urban deer herds  March 24, 2018 Michigan, MLive.com
... A total of 72 female deer in Ann Arbor have had their ovaries surgically removed since last year...White Buffalo's sharpshooters also killed 211 deer during two separate culls since last year. Another 63 deer in Ann Arbor were killed by a different sharpshooting team in 2016...
... After killing another 115 deer in January ... White Buffalo now acknowledges it significantly over-estimated the deer population in Ann Arbor last year.  "Based on observations from the 2018 survey, the correction factor utilized in the prior year is believed to have been too high," ... 234 fewer than were estimated last year ...
     Ann Arbor Winter 2018 Deer Management Program March 19, 2018 Michigan, City of Ann Arbor
... The Southern zone is estimated to have achieved 96% or more adult female deersterilization rate.  The Northern zone is estimated to have achieved a 70% adult female deer sterilization rate; however, only three adult females remain in this area that have not been sterilized... The limited number of unsterilized females in the Southern and Northern zones should greatly reduce the recruitment rate and contribute to a population decline over time.  The study demonstrates an approximately 33% reduction in deer population in the Southern and Northern zones...

...  Tom Crawford and Derek Delacourt from the city's administration deserve credit for going to Lansing last month and testifying before the House Natural Resources Committee, making the city's case for sterilization as a way to complement lethal methods... an effort in Lansing to ban the sterilization of deer in Michigan...

Ithaca prepares for potential war on deer January 23, 2018 New York, ithaca.com
... according to a case study of the Cayuga Heights deer management program, a total of 152 does (100 percent of all female deer) were sterilized between 2012 and 2013, with an additional five sterilized in 2016 and, over a two year period beginning in 2015, White Buffalo removed 72 males by way of crossbow.  "Since we've started this program, we have not had a deer-car collision in the village (of Cayuga Heights)," said Woodard...

... The House Natural Resources Committee will appoint a special committee to consider a bill that would ban deer sterilization programs like Ann Arbor's, Chairman Rep. Gary Howell, R-North Branch, announced on Wednesday...

... A total of 54 ovariectomies were completed last winter and the goal was to do up to 26 more, working in three zones ... White Buffalo, which has conducted sterilization experiments in several communities across the United States, argues it can be effective and Ann Arbor could see a 10-20 percent annual reduction in deer population...

Female deer are brought into a makeshift operating room in a shed at the Huron Hills Golf Course in Ann Arbor for ovary removal on Jan. 3, 2018. The surgical sterilizations are being done as part of the city's deer management program.


... will complete sterilizations by darting up to 26 female deer in up to three zones and surgically removing their ovaries... This will be the city's third-annual cull and perhaps its biggest yet. A total of 156 deer were killed during the two previous culls...

Staten Island, Acorns put Staten Island deer vasectomies on hold until February November 2, 2017 New York, Staten Island Advance
...The city contractor hired to sterilize Staten Island bucks stopped the effort until early next year because acorns falling from oak trees are tasty alternatives to corn bait used to lure deer into surgery... 1,011 Vasectomies so far ... 

Solving Staten Island's Deer Problem With a Snip and a Stitch September 22, 2017 New York, New York Times
... Because bucks can travel great distances to breed, sterilizing them requires covering a lot of ground. So cities with deer sterilization programs have mostly focused on sterilizing the female deer, which are more stationary... they estimate that about 92 percent of the sexually active male deer on the island were sterilized...

Saddle River to submit non-lethal deer management plan to state September 18, 2017 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
... A non-lethal deer management plan that involves capturing and sterilizing female deer will be presented to the state to consider for approval ... the majority of voters expressing that they would prefer non-lethal measures to reduce the deer population...

... The questionnaire came after the village’s deer sterilization project with White Buffalo Inc. was stalled last August after the village and the company it hired to sterilize the population had no new contract prepared for the third phase of the project. The first two phases of the project were completed in 2015...

Ann Arbor approves $481K to continue deer management efforts July 6, 2017 Michigan, MLive.com
... continuation of surgical sterilization and sharpshooting services at a cost of up to $170,000 per year, or $340,000 over two years... White Buffalo killed another 96 deer in Ann Arbor's parks and nature areas during the second cull earlier this year, while also sterilizing 54 female deer ...

Is there a way to control the deer population without killing them? This group hopes so. The Clifton Deer Fertility Control Pilot Program is Cincinnati's first non-lethal deer control program. Volunteers at the non-profit tranquilize and sterilize female deer. Then, deer are given a long-acting pain medication and returned to an area close to where they were captured. - June 29, 2017 Ohio


Saddle River committee proposes capturing, spaying deer June 21, 2017 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
...  A committee charged with creating a non-lethal plan to control the town's deer population has submitted a proposal that its chairman says would result in the sterilization of 95 percent of the town's female deer within a year... However, the state Fish and Game Council, which authorizes community-based deer management plans, has never approved a plan that did not include a lethal component...
     Saddle River vet: Neutering deer will reduce population April 18, 2017 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
... Dean Cerf, a local veterinarian leading a committee to research deer population control, said Monday that a two-pronged approach of neutering male and spaying female deer would be an effective way to reduce the animals’ presence in town...

... For the last decade, the city has spent upwards of $600,000 taxpayer money to help control the deer population with the sharp shooter method... With the deer population bouncing back, the task force is back at the drawing board for a fix, including revisiting sterilization...

Staten Island, City spent $2778 per deer vasectomy on Staten Island so far March 17, 2017 New York, SILive.com
... Seventy-eight male fawns and 642 adult bucks were given vasectomies ... Agency contractor White Buffalo Inc. was paid $2 million this fiscal year to carry out the city's plan ... Five deer were euthanized by the city as of Monday after getting injured during capture attempts...

Ann Arbor, New report examines Ann Arbor deer population, control efforts March 13, 2017 Michigan, MLive
... a newly released report from White Buffalo Inc., a contractor hired by the city to carry out a combination of lethal sharpshooting and nonlethal surgical sterilization programs in late January and early February. The 22-page report offers a recap of the recent deer cull and sterilization efforts, and looks at population numbers. "Approximately 50% more deer were observed this year than last year," ...

Staten Island, Deer vasectomies on Island at 715; season ends soon March 10, 2017 New York, SILive.com
... The three-year vasectomy effort is expected to eventually reduce the herd 10 to 30 percent... Sterilizing males instead of females is meant to be faster, cheaper and more humane.  ... Five deer were euthanized by the city as of Friday after getting injured during capture attempts...

... a two-pronged plan to reduce Ann Arbor’s urban deer population. In areas where sharpshooting was impractical, female deer were darted and their ovaries surgically removed ... “The biggest difference is that in Pennsylvania the Game Commission denied us a permit and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources approved the experiment,”  ...

Ann Arbor, Deer euthanized after being found in distress 9 days after ovary removal February 4, 2017 MIchigan, MLive.com
... One of the 54 female deer recently surgically sterilized ... DeNicola, who has done sterilization research in several communities, said there's no such thing as 100 percent success with these types of projects...

Will deer sterilization thin a local herd? January 31, 2017 Ohio, Cincinnati.com
... the second year of the Clifton Deer Fertility Control Pilot Program ... Last year, White Buffalo observed 24 to 28 fawns. This year they believe there were only four to eight... "We know there are people who will do it for free," Rack said. "But we have to absolutely make sure they get trained well enough." ...

Ann Arbor, 54 deer in Ann Arbor now sterilized after week of ovary removals January 30, 2017 Michigan, MLive.com
... The nonlethal phase ... now complete...  54 deer were sterilized by having their ovaries surgically removed by veterinarians ... We do see some of the fetuses that are terminated, and they're either absorbed or they're passed ...
... the team has successfully sterilized 53 female deer and returned them to the urban wild in Ann Arbor... The Michigan Department of Natural Resources approved the city's deer sterilization plan as an experimental research program...

... The number of deer sterilized:  Ten deer in January 2017 (all the team could find in the 1-mile area)   Forty-one deer in December 2015 ... CliftonDeer.org  names two obstacles: "migration might offset attrition," and "very low population goals might be impossible to achieve because of the difficulty to sterilize 100 percent of the does." ...

    This PDF contains the permit to allow the cull and sterilization project in Ann Arbor and the proposal summary 

Ann Arbor, Hunters oppose Ann Arbor's plan to sterilize deer January 13, 2017 Michigan, Interlochen
"... shooting of deer within the city limits, within city parks, shook many members, many community member’s sense of their home," says [Mayor] Taylor ... Hunting groups, like the Michigan United Conservation Clubs, are speaking out against the plan to sterilize... hunters would be happy to shoot those deer ... 

Town & Country Vigil Will Protest City's Deer Cull January 9, 2017 Missouri, Riverfront Times
... A former Town & Country councilman ... who has a Ph.D in mathematics, argued during his time on the council that, while sterilization was more costly on the front end, it would actually save money over time.  It can cost $1,200 to sterilize a deer, and just $300 to hire a professional to kill one, he acknowledges. "But if you sterilize a deer, that's fourteen or fifteen offspring you don't have to kill ...

      ​In November, City Council approved the City of Ann Arbor's 2017 deer management program, which has three primary components:  Sterilization (non-lethal) Plan — pneumatically darting deer in two areas, temporarily removing and surgically sterilizing deer and returning deer to area where they were found.  Lethal Plan — sharpshooting and lethally removing up to 100 deer on public lands and a small number of large city-selected private parcels with appropriate consent.  Educational Program and Public Rights-of-Way Improvements ...

Staten Island deer vasectomies continuing through March January 3, 2017 New York, SILive.com
... So far 540 bucks have gotten vasectomies through the city's plan to cut down Staten Island's white-tailed herd. That's already more than the 527 male and female deer the city counted during the most recent arial survey of the herd last year ... For the plan to work, at least 90 percent of male deer on Staten Island have to get vasectomies...


Relocation, Translocation

A common objection to relocation is that many deer perish as a result, since deer are flight animals and easily stressed by any constraint. A 2008 study in Texas where there had been significant experience with Trap, Transport, and Transplant concludes "reasonable survival rates can be achieved." (see research below).  Costs can be as low as $150 to 200 per deer. As the information below suggests, success varies widely depending on circumstances. Significant deer mortality may result from from the difficulty of adjusting to a new environment and the transportation stress, although wild deer are routinely transported for deer research.  As with a cull, if there is ample food the remaining deer will respond with increased fertility.  Also, the potential of spreading Chronic Wasting or other diseases should be considered: Geography of Chronic Wasting.  Relocating deer into a chronic wasting disease zone may improve genetic diversity and hasten the herds adaption to disease resistance.

News

...  Fifty elk transported from Arizona now officially call West Virginia “home.”  ... The free-ranging elk were captured in late January and held near Flagstaff, Arizona, for disease testing, before being transported in early March to a holding pen near Holden, West Virginia ..,

Cranbrook to apply for autumn deer cull April 10, 2018 British Columbia, E-Know.ca 
... The city is going to explore another option with the province to see if it can apply for both a cull and a translocation, with the ability to perhaps choose which method to use...

North Logan deer control program not out of woods March 24, 2018 Utah, The Herald Journal
... urban deer programs in about 15 cities statewide. Some relocate the deer ... it cost about $250 for each one ...

Arizona elk arrive in West Virginia March 19, 2018 WVDNR News
... Fifty-one elk completed their journey from Arizona and were released into a holding facility in Logan County earlier this month.  The elk, which are part of West Virginia’s elk restoration project, were captured in late January and held near Flagstaff, Arizona for disease testing..,

... deer populations, those in southeast Kentucky are viewed as relatively low compared to other regions, even after a decade of restrictive doe harvest and multiple years of population supplementation via translocation ... 

Urban deer translocation study wraps up February 7, 2018 British Columbia, Columbia Valley Pioneer
... The main stumbling block to continuing on with translocation was the propensity of some individuals, I think it was about 12 of 40 collared deer that showed up in other communities ...  there was also about the same number or more more deer that did revert to what we call natural mule deer habits ...

Chrysler site deer trapped and relocated January 19, 2018 Wisconsin, Kenosha News
... Animal lovers of Kenosha have watched the pair with concern for months after they were spotted in the summer... Darting the deer with tranquilizer was also not a good option because of the open nature of the site ... the DNR decided to put traps on the property... designed to trap deer unharmed ...

Lake Superior caribou helicoptered to island with no wolves January 16, 2018 Ontario, Duluth News Tribune
... nine caribou, one bull and eight cows, were tranquilized and taken aboard helicopters from Michipicoten Island on Lake Superior to the Slate Islands, according to the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry... The Michipicoten herd has been decimated in recent years after wolves crossed an ice bridge from the Ontario mainland ...

Annual deer count in Kimberley December 7, 2017 British Columbia, BCLocalNews
... The current study around translocation of mule deer is not yet final, although preliminary results indicate that translocating the mule deer out of urban areas doesn’t seem to be causing stress to the animals, which was a major concern...

... According to a Nov. 9 staff report from Jonathan Call, the North Ogden city attorney, tapping into a DWR program to remove and relocate deer would cost an estimated $29,120 per year, presuming 100 animals were trapped. That includes $200 paid to the DWR per animal plus $9,120 in city manpower dedicated to the task...

Kimberley BC, to truck deer out of town rather than cull the animals October 2, 2017 British Columbia, National Post
... A cull was conducted in Kimberley in 2012 but McCormick says because the city relies on tourism, it can’t afford the negative publicity ... will instead consider relocating the animals...
     Kimberley City Council approves funding for deer translocation July 26, 2017 British Columbia, BC Local News
... for the translocation project... a new motion to include $50,000 per year in the next two years... Our last translocation proved it can work ... Council has approved the motion to put in an application for the Urban Mule Deer Translocation ...

...  the third year of Wisconsin's elk translocation efforts and the first year that elk have been released into the Clam Lake elk range in over 20 years. Following two years of translocation efforts in Jackson County, focus shifted back to the original northern herd that resides primarily in Sawyer County ... Twenty-eight elk arrived at the holding pen in late March ...

On March 23, 2017, 28 elk from Kentucky arrived at their new home in Sawyer county, Wisconsin. This is the third year of a five-year elk reintroduction project being conducted by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and many other local partners.


...  The investment helped leverage $20 million total dollars for projects which included ... translocation of urban mule deer ...

Kimberley seeking permit to translocate deer from provincial ministries June 20, 2017 British Columbia, Kimberley Bulletin
... The current study around translocation of mule deer is not yet final, although preliminary results indicate that translocating the mule deer out of urban areas doesn’t seem to be causing stress to the animals, which was a major concern...

Collared deer in Cranbrook after trek June 13, 2017 British Columbia, Cranbrook Townsman
... the deer in question were captured in Kimberley in March, 2017, close to the Civic Centre arena, translocated and released in the Gilbraltor area ... showed up in the yard of the fellow who helped us with the translocation ...

Sawyer County gets 28 Kentucky elk March 23, 2017 Duluth News Tribune
... The elk, relocated from Kentucky, are being held in a seven-acre holding pen to monitor their health and allow them to acclimate to the area.  They will be released in early July ...

Big Bend Mule Deer Restoration Effort Advancing March 22, 2017 Texas, Texas Trophy Hunters Association
... To boost a struggling mule deer population in parts of the Big Bend region of far West Texas, wildlife personnel relocated 98 does... to the Black Gap Wildlife WMA and adjacent El Carmen Land ...

East Kootenay Relocation study tracks local deer, variable results March 17, 2017 British Coliumbia, Columbia Valley Pioneer
... Of the seven with radio collars, two have since been killed by predators (one likely by wolves in Upper Findlay Creek), three went up into the alpine near the release site and then returned to lower winter range in the Findlay Flats-Lavington area in the fall, and the other two each made separate long solo journeys ...

Update provided for East Kootenay Deer Translocation trial February 28, 2017 British Columbia, Kimberley Bulletin
... We had some initial predation, mostly by cougar ... Three deer died in the late autumn of unknown causes, possibly related to poor nutrition... So far the mortality rate for the  collared deer that were released last year is about 50 per cent, while it’s only 20 per cent for collared non-urban mule deer... [this is the first trial, other cases show experience improves survival, 29 deer tracked in this study] ...

... shot with the tranquilizer ... The elk ran across the road into a field — the drug takes three to five minutes to work — and eventually flopped down under a tree. A crew of seven Fish and Game and city employees converged ... “We’ll haul him out of town where we’ve got some other elk and let him go ...

...  Provo Municipal Council passed a new Urban Deer Capture and Relocation ordinance in July 2016, Freedman called it a blessing. The cost was $14,000 for the first year. To relocate and transport is approximately $200 per animal...

Elkford turns to residents for urban deer answers January 15, 2017 British Columbia, The Free Press
... During February and March of last year, 60 deer were relocated from Cranbrook, Kimberley, Invermere and Elkford. Twenty-nine of the deer were fitted with radio collars to allow monitoring of their movements and survival rates... early results show the survival rates of the collared animals have been comparable to the general deer population...

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