Non-Lethal Deer Population Management for Urban and Suburban Environments
See below for the latest news updates

Deer Culls used to manage suburban deer create a public safety issue and provide only a short term solution, requiring a perpetual killing program.  Examples of the Perpetual, Annual Deer Cull.  Many people don't want their neighborhood deer to be slaughtered.  Although degraded habitat is a major cause for the decline of the U.S. deer population, suburbs often provide excellent deer habitat.  Deer are edge dwellers, living at the interface of the meadow and the thick forest.  A lush suburban habitat can support more deer, the carrying capacity, than a forest.  Communities wanting fewer deer can reduce the carrying capacity (see figure above) using fences, deer resistant landscaping and repellents.  Careful use of dogs or other deterrents can replicate the effect of a predator in a natural environment, keeping deer on the move and restricting their access to food.   Examples of non-lethal approaches, news below for contraception, sterilization, and relocation.  A ban on feeding deer is often a first approach, sometimes a required approach.  Also a deer population survey.

Deer respond to a cull with increased fertility, producing more twins and triplets, and more female fawns that will further increase the deer population -- the rebound effect in the figure above [research support] --compensatory reproduction, also observed in coyote populations Light to moderate hunting, as in many urban culls, does not change the long-run total deer population in an otherwise stable environment.  More dramatic culls, keeping the deer population at about 50 or 60 percent of the carrying capacity, achieves the maximum sustainable yield, the largest number of deer than can be killed annually.  Also, other deer attracted by available food may migrate into the area, although suburban does have very small ranges and migration rates will depend on local factors.  A sterile doe will discourage new deer from entering her territory, the "place holder" effect, and eat food that would result in more fawns from fertile does. 

The result of a cull is a future, perpetual negative cash outlay for communities and lots of slaughtered deer.  Cost analysis of urban deer cull programs typically ignores the future cost of maintaining the program and also ignores the intrinsic value of the life of each deer.   The January 2018 issue of Wildlife Professional advises that it is a myth that wildlife populations need to be hunted or harvested to control populations [p. 28].  

Deer exterminators at work using tools of the trade: clover trap and bolt gun.


Deer culls using sharpshooters or bow hunters may not be feasible in suburban environments because of public safety concerns.  Bow hunting is becoming more popular, but even under the best conditions a significant number of deer are likely to be wounded [graphic examples] and not recovered by archers, 50 percent rates are reported in the literature.  Although many hunters will not participate in an urban cull, considering it an extermination rather than a hunt, cities often find others willing to pay a license fee to participate.  Professional sharpshooters improve public safety and kill efficiency, but costs run from about $300 to $1,000 per deer. At right a video of the trap and kill method used by many deer exterminators. 

Confusing the public debate are the wide range of unsupported optimal deer density recommendations presented to the public as scientific management goals (deer density and forest regeneration) and the concept that deer culls can generally be used to reduce the risk of Lyme disease, contrary to most of the current research. This Guide to Urban Deer Management contains links to urban news by state giving some history of management efforts.  In all cases, decision makers should be aware that they are designing the future herd based on the management method.  This page is based on a presentations to the 2015  and 2017 International Urban Wildlife Conference and the 2017 Western Wildlife Conference.
Deer Contraception

Products: Gonacon, Spayvac a PZP (porcine zona pellucid)  Cost per deer can be in the two hundred dollar range, but will vary depending local labor costs, number of deer and related issues.  Birth control needs to be reapplied after a few years, up to six years for Spayvac, but the time is being extended as the technology develops.  Success rates are often reported to be in the 90 to 95 percent range.  This approach generally has a lower risk of deer fatalities than sterilization.  An article from HSUS.  A private effort to experiment with contraception in British Columbia. The U.S. Humane Society provides this service, contact information and an example proposal.  The nonprofit Science and Conservation Center in Billings, Montana, has many years experience working with horses, deer, and other animals.   On July 6, 2017, the EPA approved an application to register ZonaStat-H, a fertility control vaccine that will provide a humane management tool for managers of deer populations.

News

Wild horse feeding stations aim to help protect animals December 18, 2017 New Mexico, Carlsbad Current-Argus
... a feeding station for wild horses that is equipped with the capability for remote injection of contraceptives. This patent-pending method is conducted with remote delivery. After the horse has placed itself in the proper position, an operator nearly 300 miles away is able to dispatch the injection via video surveillance and controls...  can also be adapted to feral dogs, feral pigs, deer ...

... Around 10 years ago, the city introduced a bow and arrow deer hunting season to try to control the growing population but it hasn't been working, so now are considering a deer birth control program...

Oak Bay wants more doe from province November 16, 2017 British Columbia, Victoria News
... “The province is making sure this follows a very, very strong scientific rigour. They are moving away from culling and now supporting other options like trans-location and immunocontraceptives,” said Steve Huxter, project manager of UWSS. “It is new to them so they are demanding a high level of confidence in what we are doing.” ...

Head of the Harbor, Village considers allowing dart guns to control deer population July 16, 2017 New York, Newsday
... trustees decided last year to pursue nonlethal means of population control and contacted researchers from the Humane Society of the United States and Tufts University exploring use of porcine zona pellucid, or PZP, a substance derived from pig ovaries that uses an animal’s own immune system to prevent pregnancy in wildlife populations ...

EPA gives thumbs up on vaccine to manage deer populations humanely July 11, 2017 HSUS
... , the Environmental Protection Agency has approved the registration of the immunocontraceptive vaccine, Zonastat- D, for the management of deer populations. Similar to the Zonastat-H vaccine, whose use in the humane control of wild horse populations is well established and effective ... When used properly, PZP reduces fawning rates by 85 to 90 percent...

... looked into the possibility of using salt licks containing birth-control chemicals... don't have long-term health effects on the deer ... Some reports say the salt licks are harmless to people, Vancheri said, but other studies question whether droppings left by deer that consume salt licks will damage the soil and possibly cause other health issues...

... "What we hope to do is use an immuno-contraceptive that's a long-term. If we could develop the vaccine properly, it could last for as long as four to five years. This would be a much more efficient way of reducing population levels." ... Steve Huxter of the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society.

Research project will see deer fitted with GPS collars March 17, 2017 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... The provincial government is giving Oak Bay $20,000 to outfit 20 deer with GPS tracking collars and install 40 motion-sensor cameras to photograph the animals as they wander its trails. This is the beginning of a plan to reduce the number of deer through the use of birth-control drugs...

Speaker: Allen Rutberg, Director of Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy and research assistant professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine. Discussion of deer population management and the use of PZP contraceptive. - February 16, 2016


Oak Bay denied funds for deer birth control December 11, 2016 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... The stewardship society, founded last year, previously lobbied for the use of SpayVac, a contraceptive vaccine, but that vaccine is no longer produced in Canada.  Now, the society is working with a lab that could produce a new immuno-contraceptive, said Steven Huxter, the society’s project manager. An alternative is a vaccine called ZonaStat-H, being used on wild horses in Alberta...

Arizona House Congressional leaders call for humane fertility control of Salt River wild horses in order to save them November 28, 2016 Arizona, Sonoran News
... Republican and Democrat members of the Arizona House Delegation called on the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) ... to immediately approve a humane fertility control program to manage the Salt River horses ... the PZP fertility control vaccine, which can be delivered via remote darting, would be used to limit population growth and maintain a healthy population ... used on urban deer ...

pioneer of humane fertility control vaccine, PZP November 23, 2016 Animal Fertility Vaccine Information Center
... PZP is safe, effective and humane. It is an organically derived vaccine that prevents pregnancy in female animals – including wild horses, bison, elephants and urban deer and more than 80 species of zoo animals - and is administered by a dart. The vaccine doesn’t harm animals, jeopardize existing pregnancies or pass into the surrounding environment...

Oak Bay,  Deer on birth control? Yes, that's happening in Oak Bay November 18, 2016, Globalnews.ca
... Researchers have been vaccinating up to 21 doe over the last few mating seasons in the community... The inoculations would be effective for up to five years, but only 30 per cent of the doe population would be vaccinated...

Saddle River, Offer To Sterilize Deer Still Stands November 18, 2016 New Jersey, Fair Lawn-Glen Rock Daily Voice
... “The people have spoken out strongly for non-lethal,” said Cerf, director of Ridgewood Veterinary Hospital in Ridgewood and Midland Park... females will be vaccinated with a contraceptive ... select males will get vasectomies ...

... Head of the Harbor Village trustees will move forward with a plan to control the overabundant village deer population with a birth control drug...

Belvedere forum explores deer management, sterilization October 27, 2016 California, Marin Independent Journal
... PZP, created from pig ovaries, is 90 percent effective in blocking fertilization ...The vaccine, good for up to three years, does not pass through a food chain and is reversible... “It’s reversible so unlike surgical sterilization, it’s not permanent ... If, for some reason, the population goes down too low and you want to stop, you just stop treating them and they will regain fertility.” ...

Harbor Springs, Future of Harbor Springs Deer Park up for vote October 16, 2016 Michigan, UpNorthLive.com
... The biggest factor in maintaining the park is limiting the herds population.  In 2011, a local resident saw two police officers shoot and kill two of the deer in the park, which had been the standard procedure for years... the city introduced a contraception plan as a more human alternative...

... Volunteer darters—who number more than 100 and include teachers, real-estate agents and a retired Los Angeles detective—believe they can control populations more cheaply and humanely at riflepoint.  Their movement is rooted in Billings, Mont., where the nonprofit Science and Conservation Center was established in 1998 to research wildlife contraceptives—chiefly a vaccine called PZP...

... One of the possibilities is an immunocontraceptive that would be shot into does with a dart...  Mayor Patrick Ward is working with resident Barbara Bruck and the Humane Society of the United States ... If the darting of deer were to take place, it would be a first in Ohio ...

Fire Island, FI deer management plan approved May 19, 2016 New York, Suffolk County News
... still includes ... a hunt to kill deer ... Beqaj explained that in 1995, she and volunteers from the island’s 17 communities had been involved with a cooperative experimental study with the Fire Island National Seashore. Special permit had been given for the use of the contraceptive PZP (procine zona pellucida) to control the deer population that she says was very successful...

Bald Head Island completes third season of non-lethal deer herd control May 11, 2016  North Carolina, State Port Pilot 
... ended its third season after capturing and inoculating 36 does, exceeding expectations ... the only community using the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on a wild deer population, making it a test case for non-lethal control... For more information about the deer management project and a week-by-week breakdown of this past season, visit www.bhic.org/deer...

...  a recent online survey conducted by the city show a slim majority of respondents — 54.4 percent — support continuing lethal methods to reduce the deer population, while 45.3 percent are opposed.  A larger majority — 61.4 percent — support implementing nonlethal methods such as contraceptives or sterilization ...

Fire Island deer plan for hunts, birth control wins final OK May 2, 2016 New York, Newsday
... The National Park Service has given final approval to a Fire Island National Seashore plan that includes fencing off areas, hunting and possibly administering birth control to reduce white-tailed deer populations ...

Nevada partnership tries to shrink size of mustang herd April 25, 2016 Las Vegas Review-Journal
... Working with the Bureau of Land Management, the nonprofit group is using the contraceptive vaccine PZP with the help of the American Wild Horse Preservation Campaign to try to shrink the herd and eliminate nuisance complaints that could prompt more roundups...

Birth Control for Bambi April 15, 2016 New York, Undark Magazine
...  In a series of pilot projects in the 1990s and 2000s, Rutberg tested PZP at sites in South Carolina, New York, Maryland and Connecticut with promising results. On South Carolina’s Fripp Island, PZP cut deer density in half ... Hastings represented a new challenge — a truly “open system.” ... According to Rutberg, horny males don’t appear to be flooding into Hastings ...

Culling and contraception March 7, 2016 Science Line
... some zoos favor a different method of controlling animal populations: contraception. “Contraception is just as important as culling,” says the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria’s Williams-Mitchell... across its 349 member zoos in 44 European countries — with 150 large mammals euthanized and more than 4,800 animals (mostly mammals) receiving contraception in 2013... “American zoos have been using contraception much longer and more extensively than European zoos,” says Cheryl Asa ... based at the Saint Louis Zoo in Missouri...

Hastings, Year 3 of the Deer Immunocontraception Effort Underway March 1, 2016 New York, The Village of Hastings-on-Hudson
... We have inoculated 29 does over the last two years, and this year, most those should not have fawns (PZP is 80-90% effective)... There are feeding stations set up in several locations in the village, and cameras intended to monitor deer behavior... For more information on our effort, go here.

Oak Bay, Scientific approach could make us a leader on deer February 13, 2016 British Columbia, Times Colonist, Bryan Gates is president of the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society 
... our project calls for the inoculation of does with an immunocontraceptive. This part of the project is intended to manage deer in Oak Bay to a scientifically defined population objective by making does sterile and reducing the number of fawns born each spring, without creating vacant territory into which other deer will move. This approach has been tried with success in several jurisdictions, including locally at James Island and CFB Esquimalt...

... Today, PZP is used in more than 30 wild horse management areas, including the Pryor Range, and has helped reduce the need for inhumane and costly roundups and warehousing of horses. It’s also used on 17 African elephant reserves and on the bison of Catalina Island. In four states, it’s been used to manage urban deer...

Deer discussion delayed to March February 12, 2016 British Columbia, BC Local News
... The Provincial Urban Deer Operational Cost Share Program provides financial support to local governments this fiscal year within their jurisdiction.  Eligible projects could be operational activities or research trials. The province indicates research includes trials in translocation and immuno-contraception which is a major component of the UWSS proposal...

No-kill deer control program begins on Bald Head Island January 14, 2016 North Carolina, The State Port Pilot ·
... the Bald Head Island Conservancy is using a contraceptive drug to keep the deer population down, with the goal of eliminating lethal culling completely... To learn more about the program, visit www.bhic.org/deer...

Blue Hills, As I See It: Science tackles deer problem January 9, 2016, Massachusetts, Worcester Telegram & Gazette, Dr. Allen Rutberg
... our research group darted the first free-roaming deer with contraceptives on Fire Island, New York, in 1993 ... According to Mr. Blazis' column, the 50 percent deer-population reduction we accomplished in five years at our study site at Fripp Island, South Carolina, took too long and didn’t get the job done.... We did get the job done, in a reasonable amount of time: Five years is also the time that the state Department of Conservation and Recreation targets to accomplish a 50 percent deer-population reduction at Blue Hills using a 3-5 day shotgun hunt...

Bald Head does to receive birth control injections January 6, 2016 North Carolina, StarNewsOnline
...  a portion of the island's does will receive a dose of Gonacon, a immunocontraception ... Dart guns   ... "Our ultimate goal is to leave 30 viable does that don’t have any anesthesia in them,” Dorsey said. “We don’t want to eradicate deer on the island, just have a healthy dose of them.” ...

Sterilization

While spaying can be expensive, $1,000 per deer, because of high labor costs, local volunteers can bring costs down.  A $500 per deer cost can be achieved.  In many states, deer contraception is illegal.  Sterilization is typically 97 to 100 percent effective and only needs to be done once, but may result in the death or injury of some deer . This field surgery requires more supplies and equipment than contraception so easier access to deer such as through small roads becomes an issue.  Tubal ligation requires less intervention than spaying or ovariectomy, but will result in does going into heat which may attract bucks into the area.  Ovariectomy avoids this problem.  
Follow the progress of Maryland's first deer sterilization program at Wildlife Rescue.  A recent case example from New York.  A program just getting started in Clifton, Ohio.  A website with video of the sterilization project in San Jose, California, where the deer population has declined more than desired.  The project is described in this peer reviewed paper which also investigates an anomalous result from a sterilization project at Cornell.  

News

... A total of 54 ovariectomies were completed last winter and the goal was to do up to 26 more, working in three zones ... White Buffalo, which has conducted sterilization experiments in several communities across the United States, argues it can be effective and Ann Arbor could see a 10-20 percent annual reduction in deer population...

Female deer are brought into a makeshift operating room in a shed at the Huron Hills Golf Course in Ann Arbor for ovary removal on Jan. 3, 2018. The surgical sterilizations are being done as part of the city's deer management program.


... will complete sterilizations by darting up to 26 female deer in up to three zones and surgically removing their ovaries... This will be the city's third-annual cull and perhaps its biggest yet. A total of 156 deer were killed during the two previous culls...

Staten Island, Acorns put Staten Island deer vasectomies on hold until February November 2, 2017 New York, Staten Island Advance
...The city contractor hired to sterilize Staten Island bucks stopped the effort until early next year because acorns falling from oak trees are tasty alternatives to corn bait used to lure deer into surgery... 1,011 Vasectomies so far ... 

Solving Staten Island's Deer Problem With a Snip and a Stitch September 22, 2017 New York, New York Times
... Because bucks can travel great distances to breed, sterilizing them requires covering a lot of ground. So cities with deer sterilization programs have mostly focused on sterilizing the female deer, which are more stationary... they estimate that about 92 percent of the sexually active male deer on the island were sterilized...

Saddle River to submit non-lethal deer management plan to state September 18, 2017 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
... A non-lethal deer management plan that involves capturing and sterilizing female deer will be presented to the state to consider for approval ... the majority of voters expressing that they would prefer non-lethal measures to reduce the deer population...

... The questionnaire came after the village’s deer sterilization project with White Buffalo Inc. was stalled last August after the village and the company it hired to sterilize the population had no new contract prepared for the third phase of the project. The first two phases of the project were completed in 2015...

Ann Arbor approves $481K to continue deer management efforts July 6, 2017 Michigan, MLive.com
... continuation of surgical sterilization and sharpshooting services at a cost of up to $170,000 per year, or $340,000 over two years... White Buffalo killed another 96 deer in Ann Arbor's parks and nature areas during the second cull earlier this year, while also sterilizing 54 female deer ...

Is there a way to control the deer population without killing them? This group hopes so. The Clifton Deer Fertility Control Pilot Program is Cincinnati's first non-lethal deer control program. Volunteers at the non-profit tranquilize and sterilize female deer. Then, deer are given a long-acting pain medication and returned to an area close to where they were captured. - June 29, 2017 Ohio


Saddle River committee proposes capturing, spaying deer June 21, 2017 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
...  A committee charged with creating a non-lethal plan to control the town's deer population has submitted a proposal that its chairman says would result in the sterilization of 95 percent of the town's female deer within a year... However, the state Fish and Game Council, which authorizes community-based deer management plans, has never approved a plan that did not include a lethal component...
     Saddle River vet: Neutering deer will reduce population April 18, 2017 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
... Dean Cerf, a local veterinarian leading a committee to research deer population control, said Monday that a two-pronged approach of neutering male and spaying female deer would be an effective way to reduce the animals’ presence in town...

... For the last decade, the city has spent upwards of $600,000 taxpayer money to help control the deer population with the sharp shooter method... With the deer population bouncing back, the task force is back at the drawing board for a fix, including revisiting sterilization...

Staten Island, City spent $2778 per deer vasectomy on Staten Island so far March 17, 2017 New York, SILive.com
... Seventy-eight male fawns and 642 adult bucks were given vasectomies ... Agency contractor White Buffalo Inc. was paid $2 million this fiscal year to carry out the city's plan ... Five deer were euthanized by the city as of Monday after getting injured during capture attempts...

Ann Arbor, New report examines Ann Arbor deer population, control efforts March 13, 2017 Michigan, MLive
... a newly released report from White Buffalo Inc., a contractor hired by the city to carry out a combination of lethal sharpshooting and nonlethal surgical sterilization programs in late January and early February. The 22-page report offers a recap of the recent deer cull and sterilization efforts, and looks at population numbers. "Approximately 50% more deer were observed this year than last year," ...

Staten Island, Deer vasectomies on Island at 715; season ends soon March 10, 2017 New York, SILive.com
... The three-year vasectomy effort is expected to eventually reduce the herd 10 to 30 percent... Sterilizing males instead of females is meant to be faster, cheaper and more humane.  ... Five deer were euthanized by the city as of Friday after getting injured during capture attempts...

... a two-pronged plan to reduce Ann Arbor’s urban deer population. In areas where sharpshooting was impractical, female deer were darted and their ovaries surgically removed ... “The biggest difference is that in Pennsylvania the Game Commission denied us a permit and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources approved the experiment,”  ...

Ann Arbor, Deer euthanized after being found in distress 9 days after ovary removal February 4, 2017 MIchigan, MLive.com
... One of the 54 female deer recently surgically sterilized ... DeNicola, who has done sterilization research in several communities, said there's no such thing as 100 percent success with these types of projects...

Will deer sterilization thin a local herd? January 31, 2017 Ohio, Cincinnati.com
... the second year of the Clifton Deer Fertility Control Pilot Program ... Last year, White Buffalo observed 24 to 28 fawns. This year they believe there were only four to eight... "We know there are people who will do it for free," Rack said. "But we have to absolutely make sure they get trained well enough." ...

Ann Arbor, 54 deer in Ann Arbor now sterilized after week of ovary removals January 30, 2017 Michigan, MLive.com
... The nonlethal phase ... now complete...  54 deer were sterilized by having their ovaries surgically removed by veterinarians ... We do see some of the fetuses that are terminated, and they're either absorbed or they're passed ...
... the team has successfully sterilized 53 female deer and returned them to the urban wild in Ann Arbor... The Michigan Department of Natural Resources approved the city's deer sterilization plan as an experimental research program...

... The number of deer sterilized:  Ten deer in January 2017 (all the team could find in the 1-mile area)   Forty-one deer in December 2015 ... CliftonDeer.org  names two obstacles: "migration might offset attrition," and "very low population goals might be impossible to achieve because of the difficulty to sterilize 100 percent of the does." ...

    This PDF contains the permit to allow the cull and sterilization project in Ann Arbor and the proposal summary 

Ann Arbor, Hunters oppose Ann Arbor's plan to sterilize deer January 13, 2017 Michigan, Interlochen
"... shooting of deer within the city limits, within city parks, shook many members, many community member’s sense of their home," says [Mayor] Taylor ... Hunting groups, like the Michigan United Conservation Clubs, are speaking out against the plan to sterilize... hunters would be happy to shoot those deer ... 

Town & Country Vigil Will Protest City's Deer Cull January 9, 2017 Missouri, Riverfront Times
... A former Town & Country councilman ... who has a Ph.D in mathematics, argued during his time on the council that, while sterilization was more costly on the front end, it would actually save money over time.  It can cost $1,200 to sterilize a deer, and just $300 to hire a professional to kill one, he acknowledges. "But if you sterilize a deer, that's fourteen or fifteen offspring you don't have to kill ...

      ​In November, City Council approved the City of Ann Arbor's 2017 deer management program, which has three primary components:  Sterilization (non-lethal) Plan — pneumatically darting deer in two areas, temporarily removing and surgically sterilizing deer and returning deer to area where they were found.  Lethal Plan — sharpshooting and lethally removing up to 100 deer on public lands and a small number of large city-selected private parcels with appropriate consent.  Educational Program and Public Rights-of-Way Improvements ...

Staten Island deer vasectomies continuing through March January 3, 2017 New York, SILive.com
... So far 540 bucks have gotten vasectomies through the city's plan to cut down Staten Island's white-tailed herd. That's already more than the 527 male and female deer the city counted during the most recent arial survey of the herd last year ... For the plan to work, at least 90 percent of male deer on Staten Island have to get vasectomies...

Group seeks sterilization program to control Lakeway's deer population December 20, 2016 Texas, Austin American-Statesman
... the Citizen Advocates for Animals ...  ultimate goal is the creation of a nonlethal deer population control program, receiving approval and funding for a sterilization program of female deer as an alternative to the TTP  [Trap, Transport and Process]  program remains a lofty goal...

Fairfax, Deer Sterilization Monday and Tuesday in Fairfax December 2, 2016 Virginia, Patch.com
... once does are found, they're actually taken to police headquarters, where they're sterilized, tagged, observed and then released...

Staten Island, Big bucks no object for de Blasio's $3.3M deer vasectomy plan November 26, 2016 New York, Staten Island Advance
... For the plan to work, at least 90 percent of male deer on Staten Island have to get vasectomies.  Experts say about 40 percent of any deer population is male. So with 468 vasectomies already performed, that puts at least 700 in the herd... The city is paying White Buffalo $2 million this fiscal year for the effort...
      Deer with city vasectomy found dead in Mount Loretto forest November 18, 2016 New York, SILive.com
... The same buck was seen stumbling around the forest that morning...  Deer number 360 was one of 13 male and female deer that have died after being tagged through the vasectomy program, and nearly all were hit by cars... 

Ann Arbor, Deer cull plan in place for Ann Arbor November 15, 2016 Michigan, WXYZ
... The cull will cost the city about $55,000 to shoot 100 deer and another $77,000 to capture and sterilize 60 deer...

Saddle River residents vote in favor of deer questions November 8, 2016 New Jersey, NorthJersey.com
... local veterinarian Dr. Dean Cerf, who has proposed that he perform vasectomies on deer. Cerf has offered to put up his own money in order to perform these operations ... 

Belvedere, Marin Co. community considers sterilization of deer October 26, 2016 California, KTVU San Francisco
... "Surgery isn't pretty and there's no way to pretty it up," said Craig Stowers, an environmental scientist with California Fish and Wildlife... Deer fences can be effective, but panelists said they should be at least eight feet high and Belvedere city code limits fences to six feet...

Ann Arbor, Ecologist describes plan to surgically remove ovaries from Ann Arbor deer October 25, 2016 Michigan, MLive.com
... "We have pretty extensive data to date from eight different field research projects," he said [president of White Buffalo Inc] , suggesting Ann Arbor could see a 10-20 percent annual reduction in deer population through attrition in neighborhoods where sterilization is done...
... the city hopes to sterilize between 40 and 60 deer if practical and cost effective, the memo indicates. Sharpshooters hired by the city killed 63 deer in 14 city parks and nature areas during the city's first annual cull in January and February... track the status and development of the plan at www.a2gov.org/deermanagement.

A Staten Island deer vasectomy up close September 28, 2016 New York, SILive.com
... About 200 bait sites are scattered around Staten Island, though only 50 to 60 are active on a given day... The vet then made a one-and-a-half inch incision to access the deer's vas deferens ... "Some people think we're doing a castration," DiSalvo said. "But the bucks are keeping their testicles." ...

City contractor White Buffalo performs a vasectomy on a male deer at Blue Heron Park Nature Center on Sept. 27, 2016.

Staten Island, 70 deer vasectomies on Staten Island so far September 15, 2016 New York, SILive.com
... Anthony DeNicola and his team at White Buffalo have ear-tagged 75 total deer so far, including five females. Those doe and five of the sterilized bucks were also given radio collars... Only 527 deer were found on Staten Island during the city's latest aerial survey of the herd... less than the last count ...

Suburban White‐Tailed Deer Populations September 25, 2016 Michigan, Dr. Anthony J. DeNicola
... Fertility control technology has been shown to be effective for use on white‐tailed deer and several other mammalian species. The general public has expressed considerable interest in this approach to managing deer, and it has promise for use on localized deer populations (Rutberg et al., 2013). The ultimate goal for this management approach is short‐ and/or long‐term population management to minimize human‐deer interactions or disease outbreaks in areas with
high deer populations where hunting is limited, controlled, or prohibited and where other management tools are difficult or impossible to implement...

Comparison of treatment effort for immunocontraceptive vaccines and surgical sterilization in deer CS Evans, AJ DeNicola, RJ Warren - Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2016
... Surgical sterilization added an average of 153% to person-hours required for the capture process; however, considering lower efficacy and retreatment requirements of vaccines, sterilization may be more efficient for long-term control of deer in urban–suburban communities. Deer behavior varied across our 6 study sites and affected effort—more approachable deer required less effort to capture and treat with fertility control. Therefore, future research should include modelling deer behavior, effort, and efficacy over the long term to identify which situations are best suited for application of vaccine versus sterilization treatments in areas where lethal management of deer is impractical...

Buckle up! Staten Island deer vasectomies begin Labor Day September 2, 2016 New York, SILive.com
... Anthony DeNicola of White Buffalo will begin sterilizing hundreds of male deer on Monday night in time for the whitetail rut this fall ... $2 million this year as part of the three-year plan ... The work will be done under the cover of darkness....

Staten Island, Deer vasectomy plan for Staten Island gets state OK August 16, 2016 New York, SILive.com
... Fertility control is only permitted by the state as part of a research study, which is what the city proposed. The Parks Department plans to sterilize hundreds of male deer over the next three years. Anthony DeNicola of White Buffalo is expected to start performing the vasectomies in September, in time for this fall's rutting season...

East Hampton, Deer Sterilization In East Hampton Village Is Stalled August 2, 2016 New York, 27east.com
... “We’re currently in discussion with White Buffalo and other groups to explore other deer management programs in continuation with the sterilization plan,” Ms. Molinaro said. “The Village Board has been approached by other groups to pursue other programs like immunocontraception, but the board hasn’t decided yet.” ...

Lakeway nonprofit taking on deer management program June 30, 2016 Texas, KXAN.com
... the nonprofit Citizen Advocates for Animals (CAFA). They want to see the city implement a sterilization program that utilizes ovariectomy – the removal of a doe’s ovaries... The process takes about 20 minutes, and the deer receive pain management during surgery and post-surgery. Their first goal: raising $12,000 to bring in two wildlife biologists to count how many deer live in Lakeway...

... After hashing out alternatives, the city hired DeNicola to bring the population down. His solution: birth control. More specifically, vasectomies. DeNicola says it's surprisingly easy and can be done much faster than sterilizing females...

Are Belvedere deer woes worth the public cost? June 22, 2016 California, Marin Independent Journal
... The City Council is being cautious about their proposal to hire a company to catch and sterilize the deer and thereby reduce the herd’s numbers.  The plan has drawn objections from Marin’s two leading animal organizations — the Marin Humane Society and WildCare. Both say that instead of a costly sterilization program, Belvedere residents should protect their landscaping with fencing...

Staten Island, Deer killer's new approach for Staten Island bucks June 17, 2016 New York, SILive.com
...  Sterilizing males instead of females is meant to be faster, cheaper and more humane... "It's easy to say, 'Just kill them,'" [DeNicola] said. Hunting is illegal in New York City. More than 50 tons of tainted meat would have to be disposed if the deer were caught and euthanized. Any traps might be vandalized by animal rights activists ...

Lakeway, Nonprofit pays for deer census June 16, 2016 Texas, Austin American-Statesman
...  Citizen Advocates for Animals received approval from Lakeway city staff to have a deer survey performed within the city, provided they pay for the process themselves. The biologist may then propose a nonlethal deer population control method alongside the city’s current trap, transport and process system ... our goal is to raise $75,000 to do the sterilization ...

Staten Island, $2M deer vasectomy plan leaps forward June 7, 2016 New York, SILive.com
... If the city's plan works, all male deer roaming the borough would be sterilized starting with a $2 million effort during this fall's rutting season. Hundreds of bucks would be tranquilized, captured, given vasectomies and released back onto Staten Island parkland over the course of the three-year study... city's chosen contractor, a wildlife conservation nonprofit called White Buffalo Inc...
   Experts slam city's Staten Island deer vasectomy plan May 12, 2016 New York, SILive.com
... The Parks Department plans to sterilize all male deer roaming the borough ... Most of what is known about deer sterilization focuses on controlling female fertility, so what the city is planning has never been attempted at this scale..."It is very consistent with, I think, the most modern thinking of how we deal with animal issues," de Blasio said ...
... Staten Island’s multifaceted approach will include sterilization, education, and the protection of natural resources ... The HSUS has really pushed for this kind of forward thinking ...
... The Parks Department plans to sterilize hundreds of male deer ... The procedure is uncomfortable and time-consuming for female deer while a buck's vasectomy only takes about 15 minutes ... Sterilization was chosen because Staten Island's herd is mostly growing through reproduction, not migration ... decided to only use lethal methods as a last resort because of pushback during public outreach ... The city will also install fences ...

East Hampton, Deer Sterilization Denounced February 25, 2016 New York, East Hampton Star
... White Buffalo sterilized some 114 does in the winter of 2015 ... Last spring, several of the sterilized does died, some while attempting to birth stillborn fawns, others as a consequence of capture or surgery... A better solution, Ms. Petroski suggested, was to “get behind a less invasive contraception program, possibly in coordination with the town.” ...

Mt. Lebanon to use sharpshooters to cull deer January 13, 2016 Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
...  commissioners approved the next stage ... by voting, 3-2 ... Humane Society wildlife biologist and senior director Stephanie Boyles-Griffin explained that a Pennsylvania nonprofit group, the Botstiber Foundation, remains interested in funding most of a surgical sterilization program. The Game Commission would have to approve the program ...


Relocation, Translocation

A common objection to relocation is that many deer perish as a result, since deer are flight animals and easily stressed by any constraint. A 2008 study in Texas where there had been significant experience with Trap, Transport, and Transplant concludes "reasonable survival rates can be achieved." (see research below).  Costs can be as low as $150 to 200 per deer. As the information below suggests, success varies widely depending on circumstances. Significant deer mortality may result from from the difficulty of adjusting to a new environment and the transportation stress, although wild deer are routinely transported for deer research.  As with a cull, if there is ample food the remaining deer will respond with increased fertility.  Also, the potential of spreading Chronic Wasting or other diseases should be considered: Geography of Chronic Wasting.  Relocating deer into a chronic wasting disease zone may improve genetic diversity and hasten the herds adaption to disease resistance.

News

Lake Superior caribou helicoptered to island with no wolves January 16, 2018 Ontario, Duluth News Tribune
... nine caribou, one bull and eight cows, were tranquilized and taken aboard helicopters from Michipicoten Island on Lake Superior to the Slate Islands, according to the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry... The Michipicoten herd has been decimated in recent years after wolves crossed an ice bridge from the Ontario mainland ...

Annual deer count in Kimberley December 7, 2017 British Columbia, BCLocalNews
... The current study around translocation of mule deer is not yet final, although preliminary results indicate that translocating the mule deer out of urban areas doesn’t seem to be causing stress to the animals, which was a major concern...

... According to a Nov. 9 staff report from Jonathan Call, the North Ogden city attorney, tapping into a DWR program to remove and relocate deer would cost an estimated $29,120 per year, presuming 100 animals were trapped. That includes $200 paid to the DWR per animal plus $9,120 in city manpower dedicated to the task...

Kimberley BC, to truck deer out of town rather than cull the animals October 2, 2017 British Columbia, National Post
... A cull was conducted in Kimberley in 2012 but McCormick says because the city relies on tourism, it can’t afford the negative publicity ... will instead consider relocating the animals...
     Kimberley City Council approves funding for deer translocation July 26, 2017 British Columbia, BC Local News
... for the translocation project... a new motion to include $50,000 per year in the next two years... Our last translocation proved it can work ... Council has approved the motion to put in an application for the Urban Mule Deer Translocation ...

...  the third year of Wisconsin's elk translocation efforts and the first year that elk have been released into the Clam Lake elk range in over 20 years. Following two years of translocation efforts in Jackson County, focus shifted back to the original northern herd that resides primarily in Sawyer County ... Twenty-eight elk arrived at the holding pen in late March ...

On March 23, 2017, 28 elk from Kentucky arrived at their new home in Sawyer county, Wisconsin. This is the third year of a five-year elk reintroduction project being conducted by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and many other local partners.


...  The investment helped leverage $20 million total dollars for projects which included ... translocation of urban mule deer ...

Kimberley seeking permit to translocate deer from provincial ministries June 20, 2017 British Columbia, Kimberley Bulletin
... The current study around translocation of mule deer is not yet final, although preliminary results indicate that translocating the mule deer out of urban areas doesn’t seem to be causing stress to the animals, which was a major concern...

Collared deer in Cranbrook after trek June 13, 2017 British Columbia, Cranbrook Townsman
... the deer in question were captured in Kimberley in March, 2017, close to the Civic Centre arena, translocated and released in the Gilbraltor area ... showed up in the yard of the fellow who helped us with the translocation ...

Sawyer County gets 28 Kentucky elk March 23, 2017 Duluth News Tribune
... The elk, relocated from Kentucky, are being held in a seven-acre holding pen to monitor their health and allow them to acclimate to the area.  They will be released in early July ...

Big Bend Mule Deer Restoration Effort Advancing March 22, 2017 Texas, Texas Trophy Hunters Association
... To boost a struggling mule deer population in parts of the Big Bend region of far West Texas, wildlife personnel relocated 98 does... to the Black Gap Wildlife WMA and adjacent El Carmen Land ...

East Kootenay Relocation study tracks local deer, variable results March 17, 2017 British Coliumbia, Columbia Valley Pioneer
... Of the seven with radio collars, two have since been killed by predators (one likely by wolves in Upper Findlay Creek), three went up into the alpine near the release site and then returned to lower winter range in the Findlay Flats-Lavington area in the fall, and the other two each made separate long solo journeys ...

Update provided for East Kootenay Deer Translocation trial February 28, 2017 British Columbia, Kimberley Bulletin
... We had some initial predation, mostly by cougar ... Three deer died in the late autumn of unknown causes, possibly related to poor nutrition... So far the mortality rate for the  collared deer that were released last year is about 50 per cent, while it’s only 20 per cent for collared non-urban mule deer... [this is the first trial, other cases show experience improves survival, 29 deer tracked in this study] ...

... shot with the tranquilizer ... The elk ran across the road into a field — the drug takes three to five minutes to work — and eventually flopped down under a tree. A crew of seven Fish and Game and city employees converged ... “We’ll haul him out of town where we’ve got some other elk and let him go ...

...  Provo Municipal Council passed a new Urban Deer Capture and Relocation ordinance in July 2016, Freedman called it a blessing. The cost was $14,000 for the first year. To relocate and transport is approximately $200 per animal...

Elkford turns to residents for urban deer answers January 15, 2017 British Columbia, The Free Press
... During February and March of last year, 60 deer were relocated from Cranbrook, Kimberley, Invermere and Elkford. Twenty-nine of the deer were fitted with radio collars to allow monitoring of their movements and survival rates... early results show the survival rates of the collared animals have been comparable to the general deer population...

More deer will be translocated from East Kootenay communities this winter December 20, 2016 British Columbia, Kimberley Bulletin
... the pilot study, while not over, has been very successful so far. If translocation is used in the future, he [Kimberley Mayor Don McCormick] says that it is expected that costs would be similar to euthanizing.   An expensive part of the current study was the radio collars for some of the translocated deer. Those are not necessary once the study is complete...

3 Interior BC communities get provincial funding for urban deer culls Relocation programs tested, December 11, 2016 British Columbia, CBC.ca
... The city has also experimented with relocation programs, tagging and moving 13 deer out of the city in 2016... The deer took to the relocation better than expected, but several have already ended up back in town.  "They were moved over 50 kilometres away from Invermere into the backcountry, [but] at least four of those deer have returned to Invermere," ...

Ky. elk population focus of upcoming meeting December 10, 2016 Kentucky, The Courier-Journal
... Kentucky’s elk restoration program is the most successful of its kind in the country... started in 1997 with the establishment of a 16-county, 3.5-million-acre elk restoration zone and the release of seven animals. Stocking continued until 2002, by which time 1,550 elk had been moved to Eastern Kentucky from seven western states...

10 Years for Recovery Chinese water deer in Shanghai area M Chen, E Zhang - Research and methods in ecohealth and conservation, 2016
... Huaxia park (in Pudong district, Shanghai) was chosen as a plot area to establish release stock, after two year, the deer has not only adapted to the climatic conditions,but also succeeded in reproducing. The stock numbers in Huaxia Park grew from 21 to 51 in the first couple of years; 80.95% of the introduced individuals survived and the survival rate of their offspring was 79.54%....

Columbian white-tails have been delisted to threatened species October 27, 2016 Washington, The Wahkiakum County Eagle
... The deer population of the lower Columbian floodplain has experienced significant recovery, increasing from about 400 deer in the early 1970s to almost 1,000 individuals in 2015... The successes in translocations and management have been invaluable in promoting the recovery of the deer ...


Riverside Cops Free Deer Stuck in Hammock October 20, 2016 Illinois, NBC Chicago
...  It took five tranquilizer darts to sedate the deer so the netting could be cut... [moved] to a safe location at an animal shelter in Chicago Ridge ...

... The deer population of the Lower Columbia floodplain has experienced significant recovery, increasing from about 400 deer in the early 1970s to almost 1,000 individuals in 2015. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and its state and tribal partners have utilized translocation as a management technique ...

Texas Parks and Wildlife relocates mule deer to rebalance the populations after a drought. - September 30, 2016



Deer on the move September 23, 2016 British Columbia, BC Local News
... Last February and March, 60 mule deer were removed from Kimberley, Invermere, Elkford and Cranbrook and released at four locations with mule deer winter range throughout the East Kootenay. 29 of the 60 deer were fitted with GPS radio collars ... the collared, translocated deer are exhibiting a higher mortality rate (28.6%) than a study of non-urban mule deer (20% in 2015 and 14% in 2016)...

... A lethal removal, or harvesting, plan could remove about 100 deer per year by archers within city limits for $21,900...  residents at Tuesday's meeting pointed out concerns for the lethal elimination methods based on safety risks for people in high-density residential areas.  The nonlethal translocation plan estimates the removal of around 70 deer for approximately $17,500 ...

East Kootenay, All eyes on Kootenay urban deer-relocation pilot as alternative to cull July 19, 2016 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... a $100,000 pilot program to relocate deer is underway... initial results are very promising ... One of the concerns with relocation was that the citified deer would be “predator naïve” and easy pickings for predators ... 29 were fitted with GPS radio collars ... very good success with the handling and moving ... predation rate seems comparable to or slightly higher than predation rates on a similar project run concurrently by provincial biologists on non-urban mule deer ...

Deer captured in downtown Chicago parking garage May 31, 2016 Illinois, United Press International
... shot two times with a tranquilizer gun ... did not appear to be injured, was released into a nearby forest preserve...

Restoring Deer to the Huichol: Sacred Animals Return to Jalisco, Mexico May 26, 2016 Indian Country Today Media Network
... a dozen deer were captured one at a time with tranquilizer darts, the rest were gathered in a two-day period with net guns deployed from a helicopter ... moved from the state of Tamaulipas to the state of Jalisco by truck ... ... On January 22 of this year, all 30 does and three bucks were released into a holding corral ... One doe died soon after arrival. All the others were released in good condition on February 23...

Ten milu deer have been transported from Beijing to Hebei Province, where they will be released into the wild in the hope of expanding the milu population. The animals were loaded onto a truck after being tranquilized on Saturday morning in Beijing and are expected to arrive in Mulan town in Hebei Province after a six-hour trip. And after staying overnight at a nature reserve, they will be carried up a mountain and returned to the wild on Sunday morning. Over-hunting, climate change and the shrinking of wetlands have made the deer an endangered species. - May 21, 2016


The Deer that were Here April 22, 2016 British Columbia, BC Local News
... 29 collared deer from Kimberley and Cranbrook were released in the south country in February... there have been no deaths that could be called stress related ... There was a lot of question as to how they would do. Capture related deaths due to stress can show up a couple of weeks after an animal is handled...

...  Stags and hinds arrived with humans – but not from Scandinavia, nor from the British mainland.  And they can only have arrived by ship: transported by enterprising Neolithic colonists ... “long distance maritime travel by Neolithic people … from an unknown source.” ...

39 elk arrive from Kentucky March 25, 2016 Michigan, MDNR News
...  In year two of elk reintroduction efforts, 39 elk from Kentucky have reached their new home in Jackson County this week. The elk will be held in an acclimation pen in the Black River State Forest through a quarantine period to satisfy health testing requirements ....

Suklaphanta to shift some of its swamp deer March 25, 2016 Kathmandu Post
... the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, they plan to relocate 15 swamp deer to the BNP in the first phase.   “The plan is to translocate the deer to Bardiya within two months,” ...

... "There was one deer that was predated by a cougar fairly early on in the project," ... "For the most part, they've been doing fairly well ...
     Tracking translocated urban deer March 14, 2016 British Columbia, Cranbrook Daily Townsman
... The capture process has wrapped up for a regional urban deer translation project, as 60 mule deer have been relocated from four communities to winter range areas... Of those 60 deer that were translocated, 29 were fitted with radio collars ... 

Effort to reintroduce elk to Alabama in 1916 March 13, 2016 Tuscaloosa News
... elk were captured in Yellowstone by experts for $5.00 a head and transported in wagons and trains to Alabama... The first night the herd made a rush on the fence and ten of them broke out. This herd has been loose in our woods ever since. Three of the elk have died  ... I believe they died from eating mountain laurel or poison ivy ...

Partners Continue Mule Deer Restoration Effort in the Big Bend March 10, 2016 Texas, Texas Parks and Wildlife
      In a continued effort to boost a struggling mule deer population in parts of the Big Bend region of far West Texas, 75 female mule deer were recently relocated from Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area ... Partners involved in this important project include the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD), ECLCC, Borderlands Research Institute at Sul Ross State University ...

Official Video from Texas Parks and Wildlife about the Relocaton Project


Game and Fish continues deer population management March 7, 2016 New Mexico, Silver City Sun-News
... In 2012, they managed to trap only six deer, but in 2013, that number shot up to 110,” Matthews said. “It is a lot of work, you need at least one person per deer.” The deer are hooded and their legs are tied so they can be safely transported during relocation. “So you wind up having to have 20-25 people there if you have 20-25 deer. It’s pretty labor intensive.” ...

Study begins to relocate wild buffalo and swamp deer to CNP March 7, 2016 Nepal, The Kathmandu Post
... Study and preparations have been begun to relocate the wild buffalo and swamp deer to the Chitwan National Park (CNP) ...

The situation with the translocation February 25, 2016 British Columbia, Cranbrook Daily Townsman
... "Over three days, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, last week, 20 deer were removed from Kimberley, which is what the permit allowed," White said. "One deer died at capture. They think it regurgitated food and it got caught in the trachea...
     Kootenay Communities Given Funding to Relocate Deer February 22, 2016 British Columbia, kelownanow.com
... The province will provide $36,000 to three communities, Cranbrook, Kimberly, and Invemere, to support the translocation of deer ...

... Efforts continue to bolster the West Texas pronghorn population with 112 animals recently relocated and freed near Marfa. [not deer, but shows these relocation efforts can be successful] ...

Moose on the loose in Idaho Falls! February 13, 2016 East Idaho News 
... Animal control officers in Idaho Falls report a moose was captured and relocated in Ammon on Tuesday by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game...

East Kootenay deer translocation study about to begin February 12, 2016 British Columbia, BC Local News
...  Female deer (does) will be captured by tranquilizer darts or in non-collapsible Clover traps.  The mule deer will be transported to winter ranges in the East Kootenays where mule deer populations are in decline...

     Capture and translocation are important tools for managing and studying large ungulates. Although widely used, many established field practices cause fear and stress in subject animals that can hamper overall effectiveness and safety...  For extended tranquilization (during transport and overnight holding), adding a sustained-release haloperidol formulation provides calming effects for at least 24–48 h. In our assessment, appropriate and adaptive use of these tranquilizer combinations benefits captured animals without impeding management or research goals

Lakeway, Living with Deer, Relocation of Urban Deer February 5, 2016 Texas, City of Lakeway
...  the “acceptable” number of deer in Lakeway is a subjective matter... From 1999 to 2015, 3,643 deer were removed through trap and relocation or trap and process permits, including 794 relocated to ranches in Mexico in the 2000 –2001 season through an arrangement between TPWD and entities in Mexico...  Costs for trapping and relocation are affected by how far the deer must be moved, but can range from $150 - $200 per animal...

Public lands hears agency reports/deer release February 3, 2016 Utah, Emery County Progress
... As many as 25 deer-sized "clover traps" are baited to catch the deer .. with the help of DWR biologists, move trapped deer into horse trailers for their trip to the southeast side of the Manti-La Sal National Forest. The areas where the deer are being released have enough forage to support the newcomers until plants in the areas green-up in the spring...deer are being radio-collared ...

Our deer will not be shot’ say Alexandra Park bosses after rumours circulate January 22, 2016 United Kingdom, London24
... they are being sent to two deer parks in Devon where they will be in a more rural environment. The park says that they had been considering moving the deer for a number of years...

Deer translocation study set to begin January 13, 2016 British Columbia, BC Local News
... this is a full on scientific project ... The less people around the better, to minimize stress ... “There are animals out there already collared — a control group,” Oakley said. “We want to know — if an animal is taken by a predator, are there control group animals being taken as well, or have the animals being transported lost their prey instinct?” ...

Mule deer translocation trial to begin this winter January 3, 2016 British Columbia, The Free Press
... This trial project, which has received widespread support, is a response to the desire of many to find a non-lethal option to reduce urban deer populations. While the hope is that translocation will prove to be a reliable management tool, the current project is designed to scientifically test if translocation of urban deer is humane and effective...


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