Non-Lethal Deer Population Management for Urban and Suburban Environments

Deer Culls used to manage suburban deer create a public safety issue and provide only a short term solution, requiring a perpetual killing program.  Examples of the Perpetual, Annual Deer Cull.  Many people don't want their neighborhood deer to be slaughtered.  Although degraded habitat is a major cause for the decline of the U.S. deer population, suburbs often provide excellent deer habitat.  Deer are edge dwellers, living at the interface of the meadow and the thick forest.  A lush suburban habitat can support more deer, the carrying capacity, than a forest.  Communities wanting fewer deer can reduce the carrying capacity (see figure above) using fences, deer resistant landscaping and repellents.  Examples of  other non-lethal approaches News below for contraception, sterilization, and relocation.  A ban on feeding deer is often a first approach, sometimes a required approach.  Also a deer population survey.

Deer respond to a cull with increased fertility, producing more twins and triplets, and a larger proportion of female fawns that will further increase the deer population -- the rebound effect in the figure above [research support] --compensatory reproduction, also observed in coyote populations Light to moderate hunting, as in many urban culls, does not change the long-run total deer population in an otherwise stable environment.  More dramatic culls, keeping the deer population at about 50 or 60 percent of the carrying capacity, achieves the maximum sustainable yield, the largest number of deer than can be killed annually.  Also, other deer attracted by available food may migrate into the area, although suburban does have very small ranges and migration rates will depend on local factors.  A sterile doe will discourage new deer from entering her territory, the "placeholder" effect, and eat food that would result in more fawns from fertile does. 

The result of a cull is a future, perpetual negative cash outlay for communities and lots of slaughtered deer.  Cost analysis of urban deer cull programs typically ignores the future cost of maintaining the program and also ignores the intrinsic value of the life of each deer.   The January 2018 issue of Wildlife Professional advises that it is a myth that wildlife populations need to be hunted or harvested to control populations [p. 28].  

Deer exterminators at work using tools of the trade: clover trap and bolt gun.


Deer culls using sharpshooters or bow hunters may not be feasible in suburban environments because of public safety concerns.  Bow hunting is becoming more popular, but even under the best conditions a significant number of deer are likely to be wounded [graphic examples] and not recovered by archers, 50 percent rates are reported in the literature.  Although many hunters will not participate in an urban cull, considering it an extermination rather than a hunt, cities often find others willing to pay a license fee to participate.  Professional sharpshooters improve public safety and kill efficiency, but costs run from about $300 to $1,000 per deer. At right a video of the trap and kill method used by many deer exterminators, including Cornell. 

Confusing the public debate are the wide range of unsupported optimal deer density recommendations presented to the public as scientific management goals (deer density and forest regeneration) and the concept that deer culls can generally be used to reduce the risk of Lyme disease, contrary to most of the current research. Some states are requiring hunting as the only method of deer control in suburban areas.  This Guide to Urban Deer Management contains links to urban news by state giving some history of management efforts.  In all cases, decision makers should be aware that they are designing the future herd based on the management method.  
Deer Contraception

Products: Gonacon, Spayvac a PZP (porcine zona pellucid)  Cost per deer can be in the two hundred dollar range, but will vary depending local labor costs, number of deer and related issues.  Birth control needs to be reapplied after a few years, up to six years for Spayvac, but the time is being extended as the technology develops.  Success rates are often reported to be in the 90 to 95 percent range.  This approach generally has a lower risk of deer fatalities than sterilization.  
     Speakers at the Botstiber Institute for Wildlife Fertility Control discuss urban fertility control in May, 2018.   A private effort to experiment with contraception in British Columbia. The U.S. Humane Society provides this service, contact information and an example proposal.  The nonprofit Science and Conservation Center in Billings, Montana, has many years experience working with horses, deer, and other animals.   On July 6, 2017, the EPA approved an application to register ZonaStat-H, a fertility control vaccine that will provide a humane management tool for managers of deer populations.

News

Head of the Harbor village,  Hunters kill tagged deer used in study, researcher says November 16, 2020 New York, Newsday
... "Killing tagged deer is very harmful to the research, since each one provides us with information on how long the contraceptive vaccine lasts and helps us understand how deer move around the village," Tufts University researcher Allen Rutberg ...

... the project has managed to vaccinate approximately 75 per cent of Oak Bay’s deer population with birth control.  “I’d say 70 to 80 per cent of the vaccinated does will be effectively contracepted so that means only 20 to 30 percent of them will have fawns compared to 95 per cent will have fawns without the vaccine,”  [ wildlife veterinarian Adam Hering] ...

South Euclid council approves culling deer with sharpshooters September 30, 2020 Ohio, cleveland.com
... a 7-0 vote ... to enter into an agreement with the USDA’s wildlife division for the culling program ...survey showed that 32.7 percent of respondents strongly favored using lethal means ... 48.8 percent favored using non-lethal means, such as sterilization or contraceptives, as compared to lethal means...

Free Webinar Addresses Multi-Year Reversible Contraception For Wild Horses And Deer August 14, 2020 Botstiber Institute for Wildlife Fertility Control 
... The Botstiber Institute for Wildlife Fertility Control (BIWFC) will host a free webinar addressing the development, assessment and application of PZP-22 controlled-release vaccine as a wildlife management tool, with a focus on wild horses and deer.  "PZP-22: Multi-Year Reversible Contraception for Wild Horses and Deer" is scheduled for Tuesday, August 18 at 1:00 PM (EDT)... For more information or to register visit wildlifefertilitycontrol.org/pzp22/...

Oak Bay deer project off to promising start June 9, 2020 British Columbia, CHEK News
... “The only fawns we’ve seen have been from our control group of deers. So that means they’re the does that did not receive the contraceptive”  ... Sixty female dear were given birth control, while a control group of 20, tagged with pink collars were left alone...

... Now in year two of six, the study is intended to test delivery methods and technologies for a long-lasting form of the immunocontraceptive PZP, which costs about $500 per deer to administer, plus $100 for dart-delivered annual boosters...

...This appears to be the first recent hunt the National Park Service has allowed on Fire Island, a 32-mile-long barrier island that sits off Suffolk’s southern coast... the park was created in 1964, says 54 deer were hunted from 1988 to 1989; then from 1993 to 2009, immunocontraception roughly halved the number of deer ...

Oak Bay ups deer management budget to $96,100 for 2020 February 25, 2020 British Columbia, BC Local News
... The deer vaccination program will continue in Oak Bay in 2020 as the province approved $42,366 in funding ... In 2019 more than 650 Oak Bay property owners volunteered access to their properties so the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society crew could tag and inject does with the immuno-contraceptive...

Rockville Mayor and Council To Vote on Deer Culling Plan December 16, 2019 Maryland, Bethesda Magazine
... allow residents to hunt deer in Redgate Park with compound bows or crossbows... In January, the previous council heard several options for population management, including administering birth control to female deer...

Valley Forge rejects deer birth control, so hunting continues December 5, 2019 Pennsylvania, Valliant News
... The park spends between $97,000 and $173,000 of its $6 million annual budget on culling, the park service reported in 2015. Park officials estimated reproductive control would cost slightly more — $108,000 to $195,000 annually... Stephanie Boyles Griffin, a scientist who opposes the culling, accused officials of setting the bar too high “so that no fertility control agent will ever be acceptable for use” at Valley Forge...

Oak Bay. Modern deer hunters fire birth-control darts November 3, 2019 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... Hering is the lead wildlife veterinarian of the Oak Bay Deer Project,.. attempting to reduce the number of wild deer in the municipality... dart projector — a modified rifle capable of firing vaccine-laden darts ... immunocontraceptive ... We have vaccinated 60 does and there are another 17 with GPS collars...

...  the immuno-contraception vaccine — called porcine zona pellucida — causes the production of antibodies that prevent fertilization of eggs... the potential to be a significant solution for any municipality across North America looking to co-exist with urban wildlife,” said Kristy Kilpatrick, president of the non-profit Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society ...
     Oak Bay, Urban deer get birth control to curb overpopulation October 13, 2019 British Deer News, YAHOO!
... study into deer contraceptives ... For the study, 20 female deer won't receive any birth control. Another 40 to 50 does within the population will receive the contraceptive shot...

Oak Bay, Deer decked out for colourful contraception campaign September 30, 2019 British Columgia, Oak Bay News
... Spearheaded by the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society, orange-vested teams have successfully immuno-contracepted 55 deer in less than three weeks... The colour-coded tags match a simple, coloured collar ... The identification collars fit high on the doe’s neck, and more snugly than the GPS collars, minimizing chafing noticed from some of the GPS collars...

Oak Bay deer contraception program underway September 6, 2019 British Columbia, Victoria News
...  the owners of about 600 Oak Bay houses have signed up to volunteer access to their property... The crew and veteranarian are visible in their yellow vests. They start at dawn and work until about noon...

Fripp Island, SC island residents upset community leaders want to shoot deer to limit population growth August 6, 2019 South Carolina, Post and Courier Charleston
... board members seem set on culling the population, which has started to grow again since the birth control program ended ... using a birth control program is roughly six times more expensive than paying a sharpshooter... “But so many of us are against the sharpshooting, it’s not what we stand for being a wildlife sanctuary.” ...

Oak Bay, Expand Oak Bay deer birth control across region, say Victoria mayor and councillor   July 30, 2019 British Columbia, Times Colonist
... we’re all saying we’d like to get on board with what Oak Bay is doing now, which is the immunocontraceptive program, because we see that as the way of the future,” Desjardins said... Researchers collected data on population density and distribution by putting radio collars on 20 does last year, and setting up 39 remote cameras ...

Oak Bay residents eager to sign up for deer control July 17, 2019 British Columbia, 
Times Colonist
...  More than 150 quickly responded to a request from Oak Bay Mayor Kevin Murdoch this week to register their properties so they’re available to those administering the immunocontraception vaccine to deer... it’s hoped as many as 80 female deer will be given ... vaccine ...
     Oak Bay to launch new deer contraceptive program in September July 16, 2019 British Columbia, victoriabuzz.com
... “Immuno-contraception (IC) is a type of vaccine that induces the animal to produce antibodies that prevent fertilization and the formation of an embryo,” explains the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society (UWSS), who will be leading the program...

... CEO Tom D’Orazio says he expects the EPA to approve the product within 10 months ... hashing out the details of a USDA deal in which the Fitchburg company could generate some new shared intellectual property ...

SpayVac using vaccines to control wildlife populations June 25, 2019 Wisconsin, Wisbusiness.com
...  Fitchburg-based SpayVac works on controlling not only deer population, but also other animals ... Culling and relocation are short-term measures, since removing animals from the population just makes the conditions even better for more reproduction, almost certainly resulting in a rebound population that will fill the gaps that the removed animals left...

... The $248,290 grant from Avalon Park and Preserve will fund a six-year study by The Humane Society of the United States and scientists from Tufts University... will test tools for using PZP, an immunocontraceptive vaccine, on female deer in the sanctuary and other parts of the village...

Esquimalt considers birth control for its deer population March 7, 2019 British Columbia, Peninsula News Review
... Coun. Ken Armour advocates that the Township seek provincial approval to develop a plan and work with the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society (UWSS) to create an immuno-contraception strategy to manage and reduce the deer population in Esquimalt...

Oak Bay one step closer to deer immunocontraceptive test February 20, 2019 British Columbia, BC Local News
...  the Urban Wildlife Stewardship Society and the municipality have a licence to immunize 40 deer, but that they are in the process of expanding that licence to 80... the next steps for the study will be to look at density and demographic changes during different seasons ...

... using birth control, installing automatic feeders that, along with corn, contain contraceptives... called OvoControl, is said to be non-toxic and only has contraceptive effects in birds...

No Kill Deer Hunt a success February 3, 2019 Ohio, Portsmouth Daily Times 
... The No Kill idea was started by local deer farm owner Todd Dunn, who said he needed to tranquilize his herd and remove the horns from his bucks and give them immunization shots [contraception could be delivered the same way, using local hunters] ...

... facial recognition software, drone-mounted infrared cameras and a dart-delivered contraceptive to track, count and contain a white-tailed deer population ... Allen Rutberg ... at Tufts University... could improve the cost-effectiveness and practicality of the immunocontraceptive vaccine PZP...

Sterilization

While spaying can be expensive, $1,000 per deer, because of high labor costs, local volunteers can bring costs down.  A $500 per deer cost can be achieved.  In many states, deer contraception is illegal.  Sterilization is typically 97 to 100 percent effective and only needs to be done once, but may result in the death or injury of some deer . This field surgery requires more supplies and equipment than contraception so easier access to deer such as through small roads becomes an issue.  Tubal ligation requires less intervention than spaying or ovariectomy, but will result in does going into heat which may attract bucks into the area.  Ovariectomy avoids this problem.  Speakers at the
Follow the progress of Maryland's first deer sterilization program at Wildlife Rescue.  A recent case example from New York.  A program just getting started in Clifton, Ohio.  A website with video of the sterilization project in San Jose, California, where the deer population has declined more than desired.  The project is described in this peer reviewed paper which also investigates an anomalous result from a sterilization project at Cornell.  

News

... rather than sharpshooters or bow hunters — to control the suburb’s deer population... Simon told the committee, the method could save the city money by providing a long-term solution rather than repeatedly spending money on sharpshooters...

... on his six surgical sterilization sites with open populations (not fenced or island environments) ... They noted an average reduction in deer abundance of 25% from Year 1 to Year 2. At research sites with 4 years of sterilization treatment (4 sites), they noted an average total reduction of 45%... [Webinar scheduled for November 17]

... Written permission of each homeowner must be obtained before members of the nonprofit bowhunters group can enter a property... Saddle River originally approved a program of deer sterilization offered for free by an area veterinarian. However, the state eventually denied the program...

... if your issue is flowers in a neighborhood, it makes no sense to wipe out a family of deer and have 50 more come in. ... DeNicola told of how contraception or sterilization can be expensive, at a cost of about $1,000 per deer, but that it can be a more effective way of reducing the number of deer within a community...

...last October, when a survey of residents showed ... contraception or sterilization, 48.8 percent were in support... through bow hunting, perhaps 20 percent of the deer can be captured, but that through the dart/surgical method he described, he can capture 100 percent of the city’s deer. “I can sterilize all of the females ...

... We have temporarily placed our successful deer sterilization contract on hold for FY2 ... As of April, the city said 93 percent of Staten Island’s antlered deer had been sterilized ...  the price tag ballooned by nearly $1 million after the contractor said it found more deer than it had expected, with more than 2,000 counted...
... Asked by Advance/SILive.com on Wednesday how he planned to continue curbing and maintaining the Island’s deer population when the program was still on hold, de Blasio was unable to articulate a plan for how the city would do so in lieu of the vasectomy program...

Deer population down 24% in Staten Island  May 27, 2020 New York, abc7NY
... The study also found an 84% decrease in births since the program began, which is connected to the number of deer sterilized in a bid to drive down the population...
SILive
... As of April, the city said 93% of the antlered males on Staten Island had been sterilized... The program saw the biggest population decrease of 10.4% from 2019 to 2020 when the borough’s herd dropped from 1,737 in 2019 to 1,555 in 2020...

Ann Arbor Year Four Summary Report May 26, 2020 Michigan, White Buffalo
... No sterilization efforts were conducted during Year 4 ... The overall cost of the sterilization effort was $159,815.26, over four years, resulting in a 49% reduction in deer within the 2.8 mi2 area of the SSA and NSA. Sharpshooting efforts cost $255,800.49, over the four years, resulting in a 58% reduction in deer over an 8.3 mi2 area ...

City resumes year four of deer vasectomies to cut population December 31, 2019 New York, SILive
... After the first phase of the $4.1 million three-year program ended, the city decided to award White Buffalo another $2.5 million contract for five more years of vasectomies...

... “Scientifically [ovariectomies] have been very effective, but in New Jersey politically, it’s very difficult because of the NJDEP [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection] Division of Fish and Wildlife and their reluctance to give out these permits [for surgical sterilizations],” ...

Staten Island,  City will spend another $2.5M to resume deer vasectomies for five more years September 16, 2019 MIchigan, SILive.com
... As of May 2019, the Parks Department said 98 percent of the Island’s male antlered deer were sterilized and that since the program launched in 2016, the population of the borough’s herd has dropped by 15 percent. The Parks Department also said fawn births have decreased by 77 percent...

... A detailed cost breakdown of the three-year program obtained by the Advance showed that just 7.6 percent of the $4.1 million program went toward supplies to sterilize the borough’s bucks and bait to lure them.  The rest of the $3.7 million in funding for the program was used to pay senior scientists, wildlife biologists and technicians ...  city’s search for a new deer vasectomy contractor ...

... down 15 percent, or 316 deer, from the first population count, which found approximately 2,053 here in January 2017... a 77% decrease in fawn births ... 98% of the antlered males on Staten Island had been sterilized ... our humane strategy to confront the large deer population is working,” Mayor Bill de Blasio  ...

... Many are dubious, but the numbers add up ... major drops after three years of doe sterilization: 34 percent in Cayuga, New York, 20 percent in Fairfax, Virginia, 47 percent on the National Institute of Health campus in Bethesda, Maryland, and 37 percent in a gated community in San Jose, California...

River Vale Council To Decide On Deer Control April 1, 2019 New Jersey, Pascack Press & Northern Valley Press
... The Animal Protection League recommends surgical sterilization, or ovariectomies, as a proven non-lethal method, although state Fish and Game Council does not list them as an accepted non-lethal approach. Only trap-and-transfer and chemical sterilization are listed by the state as non-lethal options...

Winter 2019 Deer Management Program - Year Three Summary Report Submitted by White Buffalo Inc. - March 20, 2019 Ann Arbor, Michigan [PDF]
... Sterilization study areas were in the south (bounded by U of M Arboretum and HuronHills Golf Course and Huron Parkway Nature Area), and north (bounded by Cedar Bend Nature Area and Leslie Park Golf Course)... Overall, we have incurred a 49% reduction in the SSA (94 to 46) and a 20% decrease in the NSA (15-12) [result of immigration] since the program was initiated...

... “We are on track to meet our goal of sterilizing 98% of bucks. In order to preserve the high percentage of sterilized males, Parks is soliciting Expressions of Interest from vendors for a five-year contract to continue the population control study,” ...

Ann Arbor, City ends 4th annual deer cull early, parks reopen January 24, 2019 Michigan, The Michigan Daily
... A total of 386 deer have been killed and 78 surgically sterilized as a result of the program, which has been the subject of long-running debate in the community and cost the city upwards of half a million dollars...

Ann Arbor, 2019 Deer Management Program Safely Completed and Parks Have Been Reopened January 21, 2019 Michigan, City of Ann Arbor
... Sterilization (non-lethal) ... Success within these areas is achieved by the capture and sterilization of more than 95% of female deer identified in the target zones. To date, White Buffalo has sterilized 78 female deer in these zones. The permit allowed for up to 80 to be sterilized..,

Deer-vehicle collisions continue on upward trend in 2018 January 3, 2019 New York, Staten Island Advance 
... In April, the city announced the Island’s deer population dropped by 8 percent from 2,053 in 2017 to 1,884 in 2018...  the Island’s deer population stands somewhere between 1,793 and 1,975 and that the city contractor performing the vasectomies needs to sterilize just 74 to 125 more deer to reach its goal of sterilizing 98 percent of Island bucks by the end of the three-year program...

Ann Arbor, 10 things to know about the Ann Arbor deer cull starting today January 2, 2019 Michigan, MLive.com
... Using a roughly 80 percent detection rate, White Buffalo estimated there were 216 deer in wards 1 and 2, including 78 in sterilization zones, and it predicted an additional 70 fawns by fall 2018, raising the population in those two wards to about 300...

Relocation, Translocation

A common objection to relocation is that many deer perish as a result, since deer are flight animals and easily stressed by any constraint. A 2008 study in Texas where there had been significant experience with Trap, Transport, and Transplant concludes "reasonable survival rates can be achieved." (see research below).  Costs can be as low as $150 to 200 per deer. As the information below suggests, success varies widely depending on circumstances. Significant deer mortality may result from from the difficulty of adjusting to a new environment and the transportation stress, although wild deer are routinely transported for deer research.  As with a cull, if there is ample food the remaining deer will respond with increased fertility.  Also, the potential of spreading Chronic Wasting or other diseases should be considered: Geography of Chronic Wasting.  

News

... Goldwater, an animal rights activist, urged the city to meet with her to discuss the situation. She said the animals will be treated well and examined from "the tip of the ears to the tip of their hooves" before they are sedated and transported to a sanctuary... These deer are semi-domestic ...

Longueuil deer cull triggers protest November 14, 2020 Quebec, Global News
... "The Miller Zoo wants to take them, the animal rescue is willing to catch them and transport them," ... "We know that it's possible to move these animals because we do this many times and we have a place for them," ... the city would not change its plans despite the zoo's offer...

6 On Your Side
... The Idaho Fish & Game moved 16 elk out of Elmore County because the herd is too large, and the elk are damaging agriculture in the region... The goal was to remove 70 elk ...

CAPTIVITY TO FREEDOM - DEER TRANSLOCATION FROM BHANJAVIHAR TO LAKHARY - October 10, 2020 India


... For the past four years, the city has had a dual program of lethal and non-lethal methods of getting rid of the urban deer population... In early 2019 the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources ended transporting trapped deer to new locations because of concerns of spreading Chronic Wasting Disease ... “Looking at the numbers, I’m not persuaded it has made a difference,” said George Handley, council chairman. “I don’t see any significant reduction in traffic accidents.” ...

Comparing Survival and Movements of Non‐Urban and Urban Translocated Mule Deer  CA Wright, IT Adams, P Stent, AT Ford - The Journal of Wildlife Management, 2020 British Columbia
... Annual survival of translocated deer was 0.48 and was significantly lower than survival of non‐urban deer, which was 0.77. We observed 20 of 57 collared translocated deer return to a town after translocation... 

...  Fall and spring trap and translocation to reduce the size of the depredating elk herd... Non-lethal hazing to deter elk from entering private property and depredating on crops... Nighttime sharp shooting of antlerless elk by department staff to change elk behavior and reduce herd size...

Lakeway pursues permit to trap, transport deer January 9, 2020  Texas, Austin American-Statesmen
...  the first step toward a state permit application to trap, transport and transplant ... white-tailed deer ... an applicant must trap and euthanize 15 deer within the trap site, testing them for chronic wasting disease ... Parks and Wildlife requires the test results before it will issue a permit...
... Lakeway's Wildlife Advisory Committee (WAC) recommended to the city council that an unspecified number of deer be moved to west Texas as a way to limit the deer overpopulation across the city...Dennis Hogan, the chair of WAC, brought up the plan to trap, transport and translocate deer to west Texas. Claiming anthrax had killed off parts of the deer population in that area ...

Moose is moved to state park after run through St. John's Cemetery September 30, 2019 Massachusetts, Worcester Telegram
... captured by authorities and tranquilized.  Authorities took the bull moose to a state park for release ... The moose was one of two that Worcester police were tracking in the city ...

...  The release of these 60 elk marks the fifth and final year of Wisconsin's elk translocation efforts and the second release of elk into the northern elk range in Sawyer County. Thirty-one elk were released here in 2017.  "We're happy to have the translocation effort complete and look forward to seeing the herd continue to grow," ...

... rescued from various places in the city, are set to be translocated in the wild... We want to monitor those animals at least for a month. Only then will the next batch will be released from the rehabilitation centre ...

... Earlier this year, the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources ended transporting trapped deer to new locations because of concerns of spreading Chronic Wasting Disease commonly found in deer, elk, moose and other animals...
...  the disease has a low prevalence rate in Utah deer populations compared to neighboring states like Colorado and Wyoming...

Last round of Kentucky elk reach Wisconsin April 3, 2019 Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
...  caravan of livestock trailers carrying 48 wild elk from Kentucky arrived in Wisconsin ... The animals were unloaded into a 7-acre quarantine pen near Winter in the Flambeau River State Forest...

Free ranging deer soon to be rescued March 29, 2019 India, timesofindia.indiatimes.com
... The wildlife managers have identified more than a dozen locations across the city ... plans have been drawn on how to trap the free-ranging ungulates ... will be safely transported ...

BPA rescheduling relocation of white-tailed deer March 23, 2019 Washington, Longview Daily News
... There are about 200 deer on Tenasillahe Island right now, Shull said, noting that moving 50 deer is not enough that the remaining white-tailed deer population would diminish. Federal biologists say the ideal population on the island is about 125...

No deer to be translocated from Kimberley this year January 29, 2019 British Columbia, BC Local News
... this year’s annual deer count resulted in 77 deer ... “In prior years, the Managing for the Future document set 125 deer as the threshold for the City to act on reducing mule deer populations. In June of 2018 this threshold was lowered by the deer committee to 30 mule deer within city limits,” [the translocation project has been safe and successful] ...

Kimberley Deer Committee recommends 40 deer be translocated this year January 22, 2019 British Columbia, BC Local News
... “There has been a dramatic decline in the number of bucks ...That is likely because there aren’t as many does around either. Last year there over 35 bucks in town, this year, 13 were counted.” [same result as in the San Jose sterilization project] ...With a couple of years of moving deer out by translocation, Oakley says there have been less deer killed by cars in town and also less complaints..,

What to do(e) with deer urbanites January 10, 2019 British Columbia, Columbia Valley Pioneer
... Due to a newer drug combination targeted specifically for ungulates, this trial has had great success in relocating the animals during the initial capture and release (only one mortality was recorded during the actual capture and release)... “The vast majority of deer translocated in 2018 have remained out of the communities ... this seems a reasonable outcome...Translocation gives deer a chance.” ...

Kimberely, Cull and deer trans-location funding approved November 28, 2018 British Columbia, E-Know.ca (press release)
... Five councillors voted to proceed with applying to FLNRORD for operational funding to translocate up to 100 mule deer ... The past council was not happy about having to agree with the culling of trans-located deer if they return to an urban area...

Moose tranquilized and relocated in Colorado Springs  September 5, 2018 Colorado, KKTV
... spent hours roaming through neighborhoods ... To prevent any harm coming to either moose or a bystander, Berscheid said CPW decided to tranquilize the animal and relocate it... 

Kimberley, The ups and downs of deer translocation August 17, 2018 British Columbia, Kimberley Bulletin
... Fifty does and fawns were taken out of Kimberley in five days last March. Oakley says the operation goes quite smoothly and no deer have died from being moved... One of those issues is the fact that the translocated (collared) deer show up in other communities...  the majority of the animals are staying out of towns. Their predation is rate is slightly higher ...
... translocation will continue to be their number one method for reducing deer populations ... the committee has been conducting an annual deer count ... Translocation, not withstanding some of the minor findings, has been a huge success...

... Comparison of BCS, pregnancy rates and pathogen exposure of uMD [urban mule deer] and nuMD [non-urban mule deer] showed that the health of the two populations did not significantly differ, suggesting uMD translocations do not pose a severe risk of pathogen transmission between mule deer populations and that these selected pathogens do not factor in the decline of the nuMD population...

IDFG officers and wildlife staff responded to a report of a moose in the city of Burley, Idaho. They were able to tranquilize the moose near the Maverick gas station on east Main Street and safely move it. - June 5, 2018 Idaho


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