4-Poster and Other Systems for Tick Control On Deer
Controlling Ticks on Deer

... The simple device consists of a bin that's filled with whole-kernel corn. Paint rollers on the four corners of the bin are loaded with a special formulation of permethrin that Y-Tex Corporation, in Cody, Wyo., registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for exclusive application to deer by the "4-poster." As a deer feeds on the corn in the bin, the animal's head and neck rub against the permethrin-laden rollers, which gives sufficient coverage to protect the entire animal.  
     The 4-poster device offers a viable tick-control alternative to spraying insecticides into the environment that might be toxic to nontarget species. Studies by ARS and cooperators have shown that after two to three years, use of the 4-poster technology will control from 92 to 98 percent of the free-living tick population around the devices

News

USDA plans to use treated corn for ticks on deer February 8, 2017 Texas, Lone Star Outdoor News
... As part of the effort to control cattle fever ticks, the U.S Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is proposing to treat white-tailed deer with ivermectin, a broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug, to control tick vectors ...

Feds propose feeding wild deer drugs to prevent disease December 16, 2016 Texas, The Monitor
... As cattle fever ticks march northward, federal officials are proposing to feed wild white-tailed deer a drug to kill both ticks and the protozoan they carry that causes cattle fever.  The proposal will install gravity-fed feeding stations filled with corn laced with the broad spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin...

Shelter Island, State slashes Shelter Island's 4-poster money July 8, 2016 New York, Shelter Island Reporter
...  4-posters — feeding stands that brush deer with a tickicide, permethrin ... According to figures released at the July 6 Deer & Tick Committee meeting, tick drags at the beginning of the trial in 2008 were averaging 440 lone star nymphs, which dropped to 18 by the end of the three-year trial in 2010...

Deer Culling Discussed Amid Worry Over Tick Diseases July 7, 2016 Massachusetts, vineyardgazette.com
... At one time, the Island deer herd was treated with four-posters, feeding stations with vertical rollers that attract the deer and apply a tick toxin to their ears and neck. The stations were removed some time ago, following the death of the Cape and Islands tick and Lyme disease specialist who had run the program.,, Dan Gilrein, an entomologist with Cornell University, said he has noted a “dramatic decline” in deer ticks in areas of Long Island where four posters were used and maintained...

Shelter Island, Committee gathering data on deer and ticks June 7, 2016 New York, Shelter Island Reporter
... CCE Entomologist Daniel Gilrein, who was involved in the study that ran for three seasons between 2008 and 2010, concluded after a 2011 final report was published that “we and others before us have demonstrated the efficacy of 4-posters for control of lone star and blacklegged deer ticks. I feel there is no question they perform as stated when deployed and maintained appropriately.” ...

... "There is a large volume of scientific and anecdotal evidence demonstrating chickens' pest control ability as they love to eat tick ... chickens can help reduce the density of the tick population. As a deer committee member, Cassel said he's committed to trying management techniques such as this.  "We don't want to keep killing deer ...

Shelter Island, Deer & Tick Committee takes a fresh look at tactics February 15, 2016 New York
Shelter Island Reporter 
...  use of 4-poster units — feeding stands that brush deer with a tickicide, permethrin ... Committee member Dr. Scott Campbell, who is lab director of the Suffolk County Department of Health Services ... said recently that the 4-posters are safe and effective... [Mr Wein said]: they did their survey and nobody knows what’s happening,” ... referring to the 2008 to 2010 Cornell University and Cornell Cooperative Extension program that first brought the 4-posters ...

Call 215 651-8329 for information


... In samples taken at 10 locations on the Island in June, the numbers of a particular category of ticks — Lone star nymphs — have remained down significantly since 4-poster units were deployed on the Island seven years ago... As deer feed, their necks are coated with the tickicide permethrin...

Virginia Military Institute engineers develop Tick-killing robot May 26, 2015 North Carolina, Uncover California
... a tick killing robot that could eradicate the pesky arachnids from your property... dubbed Robo-Tic has the potential to lessen cases of Lyme disease in North Carolina and across the United States...

Shelter Island, Wein plan would concentrate on culling deer herd May 6, 2015 New York, Shelter Island Reporter 
... Mr. Wein ran into opposition when he said that between the permethrin on 4-posters and people spraying their yards, there could be thousands of gallons of the tickicide “seeping into our aquifer.”  The National Pesticide Information Center refutes that, maintaining that when permethrin  enters  an  aquatic  system, “some  is  degraded  by sunlight, but the majority binds tightly to sediment and is broken down without infecting the water.  “The  average half-life  range  for  permethrin  in  the  water  column  is  about  19 to 27 hours,” ...
Plumstead nursery using deer feeder to help battle Lyme disease, ticks April 30, 2015 Pennsylvania, theintell.com 
... As a deer bends its heads down to reach the corn in the feeder, its neck and ears are brushed with rollers coated with the pesticide permethrin, explained Hirst.
“It turns the deer into a tick-killing machine,” ... 

East Hampton, Red Nose! A Solution to the Hamptons Deer Problem, Four Poster System November 26, 2014 New York, danspapers.com ·
... The deer would come over to eat ... would cause one of their ears to get between two rollers sticky with pesticide. ....  One test was conducted in a 96-acre fenced in wildlife management area near Kerrville, Texas. After three years, there were 92-97 percent fewer ticks on the deer. Another study was done for three years at a 600-acre fenced-in woods at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, which found a 96 percent to 98 percent reduction in ticks...

All in on tick control: Multi-faceted approach discussed August 12, 2014 New York, Shelter Island Reporter 
...  the expected $100,000 coming from New York State for expansion of the 4-poster program — feeding stands that brush deer with a chemical that kills ticks — is in many ways a game changer. The funds give the town the money to expand the 4-poster program ... Dr. Bill Zitek, a retired veterinarian and former member of the Deer & Tick Committee, said the 4-posters are “a very functional method of reducing ticks.” ...

Shelter Island Deer & Tick Committee seeks vision July 3, 2014 New York, Shelter Island Reporter
... when Shelter Island participated in the Cornell University-Cornell Cooperative Extension 4-poster program and deployed 60 units, it effectively reduced the tick infestation. But ticks have increased since the town had fewer than 20 units deployed during the last two years. Returning to 60 units is a major part of the solution ...

Shelter Island, Deer & Tick Chairman: Don't count out sharpshooters February 7, 2014 New York, Shelter Island Reporter
... during the three-year period in which 60 4-posters were deployed around the Island ... from 2008 through 2011, there was a decline in the numbers of ticks ... During the spring and summer of 2012, the town went it alone, deploying only a quarter of the number of 4-posters and the same was true in 2013, with just a few more units deployed. Tests showed a major increase in the tick count here, resulting in plans this year for the town to deploy 34 units ...

Turning Bambi into Rambo, four post system September 13, 2013 Massachusetts, Boston.com (blog)
...  a four-poster station... As deer eat the corn, the animal’s neck and chin rub up against posts that resemble paint rollers. The rollers are treated with permethrin, an insecticide... Final results are expected by December. Recommendations will then be presented to the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife to determine if this technology should be approved for general usage...

... "Homeowners trying to kill ticks in their own yards need to target the rodents that carry the Lyme disease bacteria," says the CDC's Division of Vector-Borne Diseases Director Lyle Petersen in its recent report...  "Historically, people focused on deer as the culprit, but it's mice that spread Lyme disease," says Damminix Company Director Ariana Ganak. "When deer ticks hatch, they are disease free. Immature ticks feed on mice twice a year, and when they bite the infected mouse they become carriers of Lyme and pass it on to the unsuspecting general public. At long last people are becoming aware that mice are the real cause of this public health epidemic ...

Using Deer Feeders to Control Ticks August 11, 2013 Pennsylvania, Times Leader
... A feeder with upright rollers saturated with tick treatment is filled with corn. When a deer attempts to consume the corn, it squeezes its head between the rollers and the tick treatment is applied as the animal feeds.  Why deer? Because they’re one of the primary carriers of the deer tick, which can transmit the Lyme disease bacteria.  Representatives from the Lyme Disease Association of Southeastern Pennsylvania and the Brandywine Conservancy both spoke in favor of the baited tick stations ...

...  working to complete a multi-year study on the effectiveness of tick management techniques this summer ... The research evaluates “four-poster” deer feeding stations, which are used to treat deer with a pesticide that kills ticks present, as opposed to traditional pesticide spraying.  Thus far, researchers have learned that the method is effective at reducing tick populations but have not yet determined how its effects compare to other approaches....

System to apply tick control to deer  January 11, 2011 Arkansas Southwest News-Herald 
ARS researchers have developed new cattle fever tick control measures including this one that automatically applies a pesticide-impregnated neckband to deer ... The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) tackled the tick problem by developing a device called the 4-Poster Deer Treatment Bait Station. This is essentially a corn-filled bin with paint rollers on its four corners. The ARS scientists have since refined their deer treatment station, creating a new system that automatically applies a pesticide-impregnated neckband to wild deer as they feed. The collars can be detached remotely once they've stopped working.

Gibson Island, Maryland, which is a private, resident-owned community, purchased 15 of the devices and deployed them around their community for five years, and achieved at least 77 percent control of the ticks that carry Lyme disease and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, both serious human health problems.

The ARS scientists have since refined their deer treatment station, creating a new system that automatically applies a pesticide-impregnated neckband to wild deer as they feed. The collars can be detached remotely once they've stopped working.

North Haven, 4-Poster Tick Management Unlikely Unless Done Privately November 14, 2012 New York, The Sag Harbor Express
... the Village of North Haven will not fund or erect any 4-Poster tick management devices on its own for now. But during another contentious village board of trustees meeting last Wednesday night, the board said it would consider allowing private residents to place the devices on their properties, if the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) allows it... A 4-Poster device is a duel feeding station which forces deer to rub up against applicator rollers treated with the tickicide permethrin as they feed.

Deer & Tick: Deployment of 4-posters soon 'unlikely' (study to test effectiveness of tick control for deer) February 24, 2011 New York Shelter Island Reporter By Ted Hills | February 23, 2011 in Government, News The Department of Environmental Conservation is unlikely to approve 4-poster deer feeding stations for use in reducing ticks in time for the town to deploy them by mid-March ... Testing showed tick numbers were “very, very low last year,” [Cornel scientist] Dr. Gilrein said, “so you can coast on that for at least a short time.”


Virginia Military Institute engineers develop Tick-killing robot May 26, 2015 North Carolina, Uncover California
... a tick killing robot that could eradicate the pesky arachnids from your property... dubbed Robo-Tic has the potential to lessen cases of Lyme disease in North Carolina and across the United States...

Plumstead nursery using deer feeder to help battle Lyme disease, ticks April 30, 2015 Pennsylvania, theintell.com 
... As a deer bends its heads down to reach the corn in the feeder, its neck and ears are brushed with rollers coated with the pesticide permethrin, explained Hirst.
“It turns the deer into a tick-killing machine,” ... 

East Hampton, Red Nose! A Solution to the Hamptons Deer Problem, Four Poster System November 26, 2014 New York, danspapers.com ·
... The deer would come over to eat ... would cause one of their ears to get between two rollers sticky with pesticide. ....  One test was conducted in a 96-acre fenced in wildlife management area near Kerrville, Texas. After three years, there were 92-97 percent fewer ticks on the deer. Another study was done for three years at a 600-acre fenced-in woods at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, which found a 96 percent to 98 percent reduction in ticks...

Turning Bambi into Rambo, four post system September 13, 2013 Massachusetts, Boston.com (blog)
...  a four-poster station... As deer eat the corn, the animal’s neck and chin rub up against posts that resemble paint rollers. The rollers are treated with permethrin, an insecticide... Final results are expected by December. Recommendations will then be presented to the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife to determine if this technology should be approved for general usage...

...  working to complete a multi-year study on the effectiveness of tick management techniques this summer ... The research evaluates “four-poster” deer feeding stations, which are used to treat deer with a pesticide that kills ticks present, as opposed to traditional pesticide spraying.  Thus far, researchers have learned that the method is effective at reducing tick populations but have not yet determined how its effects compare to other approaches....

... The 4-Poster devices target the host directly, using corn bait to attract white-tailed deer to a feeding station. As deer feed, rollers treated with a pesticide called permethrin brush against the animal’s neck, head and ears.  “The 4-Poster technology was very effective for controlling our two main species of ticks, but it takes a couple of years to see results,” said Gilrein...  maintaining a unit for a season is about $5,000 ... The pesticide is also “highly toxic to honeybees, fish, and aquatic invertebrates,” ...

DEC official defends 4-poster, for reduction of Lyme July 4, 2012 New York, Shelter Island Reporter 
“Physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM) rash cases were used as a surrogate for incident Lyme disease cases” in the study, ... which was titled, “Evaluation of deer-Targeted Interventions on Lyme Disease Incidence in Connecticut” and published in 2011 by scientists from the Yale School of Public Health’s Connecticut Emerging Infections Program.... “Our findings suggest that the 4-poster device was effective in decreasing the incidence of EM rash in an endemic area,” the authors wrote in a report summary. “Despite a decrease in EM rash incidence, however, we did not find a statistically significant effect of the deer hunt on EM rash incidence 

4-poster funding not enough, says Shillingburg October 22, 2011 New York, Shelter Island Reporter
... Supervisor Jim Dougherty, who is running for re-election, said, “We’re all learning this thing … It looks like the 4-posters work.” But “we’re broke, so we have to compromise.” ...“Shelter Island needs to be deer tick free,” Mrs. Shillingburg [chair of the Deer and Tick Committee] said. The current $68,000 budget line for 2012 is far too low ... Councilman Glenn Waddington, who is running for town supervisor, said he thought hunters would prefer having 60 4-posters in the field in 2012 and none in 2013, a plan that would allow them to hunt without any 4-posters anywhere in the down year.

Study: 4-poster tick management devices worked here  June 28, 2011  New York  Shelter Island Reporter  
A newly published final report on the five-year 4-Poster tick management study conducted on Shelter Island finds that tick populations significantly declined, for the most part, in areas where the deer-feeding devices were set up compared with the North Haven control site, where no 4-Posters were used.The state Department of Environmental Conservation announced Monday that the exhaustive, complex and highly detailed scientific report on the study, which began in 2007, has been completed and is now available online.

Deer & Tick: Deployment of 4-posters soon 'unlikely' (study to test effectiveness of tick control for deer) February 24, 2011 New York Shelter Island Reporter By Ted Hills | February 23, 2011 in Government, News The Department of Environmental Conservation is unlikely to approve 4-poster deer feeding stations for use in reducing ticks in time for the town to deploy them by mid-March ... Testing showed tick numbers were “very, very low last year,” [Cornel scientist] Dr. Gilrein said, “so you can coast on that for at least a short time.”

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The EPA has approved a specially formulated 10% permethrin based tickicide for use in treating ticks on deer.  As with any pesticide, labels regarding its safety are included with its shipment to the Licensed Pesticide Operator.

For additional information contact:
Dandux Outdoors
3451 Ellicott Center Drive
Ellicott City, Md 21043
Phone: 800.933.2638 (extension: #481)
Fax: 410.461.2987
Email: info@crdaniels.com


Deer Using 4-Poster System.  Picture from Shelter Island Police Department

Research

Cornell 4-poster Deer and Tick Study  Several studies (Carroll et al 2002, Pound et al 2000a, Pound et al 2000b, Solberg et al 2003)1 have shown large reductions in tick populations in the years following use of 4-Poster devices.  

Control Deer Ticks Using Four-Poster Feeding Device to Deliver Safe Pesticide to Deer  University of Rhode Island
... Small-scale trials using a novel strategy developed by the USDA called the '4-poster' were recently completed in 5 northeastern states including Rhode Island. Over a 5-year period, abundance of nymphal deer ticks, the stage most responsible for disease transmission, was reduced by over 50% across a 2 square mile area. Now, with funding made available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the town of Narragansett has the opportunity to put this technology into action on a town-wide scale, to test if this device can reduce Lyme disease incidence.

Systemic treatment of white-tailed deer with ivermectin-medicated bait to control free-living populations of lone star ticks
... Whole-kernel corn was treated with 10 mg ivermectin per 0.45 kg corn and fed at rate of approximately .45 kg/deer per day to white-tailed deer confined in the treatment pasture, whereas deer in an adjacent control pasture received a similar ration of untreated corn. Treatments were dispensed from February through September of 1992 and 1993, and free-living populations of lone star ticks... This study demonstrates that a freely consumed, systemically active acaricidal bait ingested by white-tailed deer under nearly wild conditions can significantly reduce the abundance of all stages of free-living long star ticks.  [Use caution when feeding corn, use of goat or deer chow will reduce risks]  
     See also, Treatment for Lice,  Idaho Fish and Game. Ten deer were anesthetized, given orange ear tags and treated with ivermectin (2 ml/100 lb).  Marked deer were relocated on monthly intervals and retreated when and if they could be found.  Treatment was effective in limiting the extent of the hair loss and reducing lice numbers in these deer.

Deer & Tick: Deployment of 4-posters soon 'unlikely' (study to test effectiveness of tick control for deer) February 24, 2011 New York Shelter Island Reporter By Ted Hills | February 23, 2011 in Government, News The Department of Environmental Conservation is unlikely to approve 4-poster deer feeding stations for use in reducing ticks in time for the town to deploy them by mid-March ... Testing showed tick numbers were “very, very low last year,” [Cornel scientist] Dr. Gilrein said, “so you can coast on that for at least a short time.”

Acaricidal treatment of white-tailed deer to control Ixodes ... (use of feeding systems for deer to control ticks) July 5, 2011 New York
Deer densities, estimated by aerial snow counts, averaged 22 and 28 deer per km(2) in Bedford and Lewisboro, respectively, over a 3-year period. Significant reductions in tick numbers on deer captured in the treatment area were noted in fall 1999 compared to deer captured at the control site. Drag sampling for nymphal host-seeking ticks indicated 63.6% control in 2001, which dropped to 54.8% the following year, but reached 80% in 2003. Higher-than-normal acorn production in 2001 that likely caused a drop in deer visitation to the feeders may have reduced efficacy against larval ticks in 2002. The 4-Poster effectively reduced the density of Ixodes scapularis, though the level of control is dependent on environmental factors that affect feeding behavior of white-tailed deer..

American Lyme Disease Foundation, Information on 4-Poster
Studies ... have shown that use of '4-Poster' technology has resulted in the control of 92 to 98% of free-living tick populations in areas around the devices after three years of use.,, Sites that are deer-fenced or where movement of deer is otherwise 'controlled' have better results than 'unrestricted sites,' where deer are able to come and go as they please.

North Haven Residents Call for Tick Abatement July 5, 2012 New York, The Sag Harbor Express Josephine DeVincenz ... urged the North Haven Village Board to explore implementing a “4-Poster” program in the village... Cornell Cooperative Extension, which completed the 4-Poster study in Shelter Island in 2011, DeVincenzi is correct. The study did show tick populations could be controlled over time and significantly reduced using 4-Poster devices. The duel feeding stations are designed to apply the insecticide permethrin to the necks, head, ears and shoulders of deer ... 

Update on: 4-Poster Tick Management and White-tailed Deer April 14, 2012, Brookhaven National Lab (BNL)
Studies conducted in North Haven, Shelter & Fire Islands found:
• Car deer accidents didn’t really change
• Deer didn’t move out of home ranges
• Raccoons, squirrels, mice, birds did use devices 
• Residue transfer to meat non-conclusive
• Efficacy overall – 86% reduction in ticks
ƒ BNL ready to order 14 devices

Efficacy of Amitraz-Impregnated Collars on White-Tailed Deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Reducing Free-Living Populations of Lone Star Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) 2012 Journal of Economic Entomology, JM Pound, KH Lohmeyer, RB Davey, JA Miller…
     Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9–78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and ‘4-Poster’ topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer.

4-poster study in Virginia April 24, 2012
Virginia does not currently permit legal commercial use of 4-poster deer treatment stations. The Fairfax County pilot study is being conducted under a scientific collections permit issued by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. The research is an extension of the Fairfax County Deer Management Program implemented each year by the Fairfax County Wildlife Biologist Office. Development of the pilot study has been underway since August 2009 ...

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